Swedish chemist, 1877First to describe acids and also bases.Arrhenius acid - provides H+ (hydrogen ions)Arrhenius base - provides OH- (hydroxide ions)Neutralization reactivity of an acid via a base yields a salt and also water.this concept of acids and also bases forced water.

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A substance that provides H+ (hydrogen ions) when liquified in water.Electrolyte bereason produces ions in water.Ex. vinegar, lemonsSour taste.HCL ---> H+ + Cl-(H+ provides it an acid)
A substance that offers OH- (hydroxide ions) once liquified in water.IOnic compounds that dissociate into a metal ion and also hydroxide ions (OH-).Ex. antacids, drain openers, range cleaners.bitter taste, soapy, slippery feel.turns blue litmus paper red.NaOH ---> Na+ + OH-(OH- renders it a base)
Problems:Limited to aqueous options only (can only use water as solvent)H+ is extremely reenergetic w/ H2O to offer H3O (hydronium ion)OH- produced can come from one of 2 sources:1. metal hydroxides (NaOH, LiOH, KOH) are ionic and release the OH- as soon as dissolved in water.2. various other bases might not contain an OH- but have the right to create them in water solution.NH3 + H2O NH4 + OH-(hydroxide is what makes litmus paper react better as soon as wet)
Johannes Bronsted (Danish chemist) & Thomas Lowry (english chemist) both individually came up through an broadened meaning for acids and bases.B-L acids and also bases carry out not require water B-L Acid: donates H+ (proton donor)B-L base: accepts H+ (proton acceptor)
Since hydrogen atom consists of one proton and one electron, a hydrogen ion (H+) becomes a proton after it loses it"s electron.B-L acids are referred to as proton donorsB-L bases are referred to as proton acceptors.
Can donate one or even more H+ (monoprotic, diprotic or triprotic)Some have many type of hydrogens , however might not donate them all as H+Ex. acetic acid only gives the hydrogen on the oxygen atom bereason it is polar and also easily donated.. The hydrogens on the carbon atoms are nonpolar bonds and will certainly not be donated.
B-L acid is proton donor & B-L base is proton acceptor, therefore an acid-base reaction is proton move reaction.HA (acid) + B (base) A- + BH+
A substance that deserve to act as an acid or a base.Water is many common substance to act as acid or base.Depends on whether the various other reactant is a more powerful acid or base.
Determined by the moles of H3O+ that are developed for each mole of acid that dissolves.totally ionizes (100%) in aqueous solutions. Strong electrolyte.In water, the dissolved molecules:Dissociate right into ionsGive big concentrations of H3O+ and also the anion (A-)Have weak conjugate bases.(arrowhead goes one direction)**Only first 6 acids on on table are solid acids
**(HClO4, HI, HBr, HCl, H2SO4, HNO3)
Dissociates just slightly in water to develop a couple of ions in aqueous options.Many of the weak acid continues to be as the undissociated (molecular) create of the acid.Weak electrolyte.Concentrations of H3O+ and the anion (A-) are little.Make up the majority of acids.Have solid conjugate bases.(arrow goes in both directions)**all acids (besides first six on list) on list are weak
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Arrows show solid or weak acids.Arrow in one direction shows strong acidArrows in in 2 directions (one smaller) shows weak acid.

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Determined by the moles of OH- that are produced for each mole of base that dissolves.Formed from metals of Groups 1A (1) and 2A (2).Disassociate totally in water to offer aqueous solution of steel ion and hydroxide ions (OH-)Indicated by OH.Include: LiOH, NaOH, KOH, Ca(OH)2
Concentration of acid has nopoint to do through solid or weak.A strong or weak acid will remajor solid or weak whether their concentration is 0.5M or 12M.
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