Geographic Range

Drosophila melanogaster has actually been introduced to eincredibly continent of the people via one exception, Antarctica. On various other continents its variety is restricted just by hill varieties, deserts, and high lattitudes. (Demerec 1950)The natural selection of D. melanogaster is throughout the Old World tropics. Humans have helped to spreview Drosophila melanogaster to eextremely other place which it inactions. (Demerec, 1950; Patterchild and Stone, 1952)

Biogeographical Regions nearctic palearctic oriental ethiopian neotropical australian oceanic islands Other Geographic Terms


Drosophila melanogaster stays in a vast selection of habitats. Native habitats include those in the tropical regions of the Old World, however the common fruit fly has actually been presented to virtually all tempeprice regions of the world. The only elements that limit the habitats Drosopila melangaster deserve to live in is temperature and also availcapability of water. The scientific name Drosophila actually suggests "lover of dew", implying that this species requires moist settings.

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The advancement of this species" offspring is exceptionally dependent on temperature, and the adults cannot withstand also the colder temperatures of high elevations or high latitudes. Food provides are also limited in these locations. Therefore, in chillier climates Drosophila melanogaster cannot make it through.

In temperate regions where humale tasks have actually presented Drosophila melanogaster, these flies seek sanctuary in cooler winter months. Many type of times Drosophila can be found in fruit cellars, or other accessible guy made frameworks via a big supply of food. (Demerec, 1950)

Habitat Regions Terrestrial Biomes Other Habitat Features

Physical Description

Drosophila mature with finish metamorphosis, as perform all members of the order Diptera.

Similar to all insects Drosophila is spanned in a chitinous exoskeleton; has actually 3 major body segments; and also has 3 pairs of segmented legs.

Adult: The prevalent fruit fly is generally a yellow brown (tan) color, and is just about 3 mm in size and 2 mm in width (Manning 1999, Patterchild, et al 1943). The form of the widespread fruit fly"s body is what one would commonly imagine for a species of the order Diptera. It has a rounded head through large, red, compound eyes; 3 smaller sized simple eyes, and brief antennae. Its mouth has occurred for sopping up liquids (Patterkid and Stone 1952). The female is slightly larger than the male (Patterboy, et al 1943). There are babsence stripes on the dorsal surconfront of its abdomales, which deserve to be supplied to determine the sex of an individual. Males have actually a greater amount of babsence pigmentation focused at the posterior finish of the abdomales (Patterkid and Stone 1952).

Like various other flies, Drosophila melanogaster has a single pair of wings that create from the middle segment of its thorax. Out of the last segment of its throax (which in other insects contains a second pair of wings) establishes a set rudimentry wings that act as knobby balancing organs. These balancing organs are dubbed halteres. (Raven and also Johnkid 1999)

Larvae are minute white maggots doing not have legs and a characterized head. (Patterkid and Stone, 1952; Patterkid, et al., April 1, 1943; Raven and Johnkid, 1999)

Other Physical Features Sexual Dimorphism female bigger sexes colored or patterned in a different way


Reproduction in Drosophila is fast. A single pair of flies have the right to develop thousands of offspring within a couple of weeks, and also the offspring become sexually mature within one week (Lutz 1948).

As in all insect species Drosophila melanogaster lays eggs. The eggs are put on fruit, and also hatch into fly larvae (maggots), which instantly begin consuming the fruit on which they were lassist (Patterboy and Stone 1952).

Male flies have actually sex combs on their front legs. It has actually been theorized that these sex combs can be used for mating. However, once these combs are rerelocated it appears to have little bit result on mating sucess (Patterchild, et al 1943). (Lutz, 1948; Patterboy and also Stone, 1952; Patterchild, et al., April 1, 1943)

Key Refertile Features fertilization Mean age at sexual or refertile maturity (female) 1 weeks Mean age at sexual or reabundant maturity (male) 1 weeks



The habits of Drosophila melanogater is simplistic. They are quickly attracted in the direction of the smell of any type of food source, and also will certainly mate almost indiscriminately with any kind of individual of the opposite sex.

They have hairs on their backs that are sensitive to air currents; their eyes are sensitive to slight differences in light intensity; and they will instinctively fly amethod once they sense a shadow or activity (Demerec 1950).

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Drosophila melanogaster likewise have a propensity to fly towards light. If you culture the flies in a tube it is conveniently noticable that the flies will migrate in the direction of the side of the tube that is nearest to the brightest resource of light (Lutz 1948). (Demerec, 1950; Lutz, 1948)

Key Behaviors flies

Food Habits

As the name indicates, the fruit flies lives mostly on plant material. The adults prosper on rotting plants, and fruits; while eggs are normally laid on unripened/slightly ripened fruit, so by the time the larva develop the fruit will certainly have actually just started to rot, and they deserve to use the fruit that the egg was laid on as their major source of nutrition. Drosophila are taken into consideration significant pests in some area of the people therefore. (Demerec, 1950; Lutz, 1948; Wilboy, October,1999)

Main Diet herbivore Plant Foods fruit

Economic Importance for Humans: Positive

This species is extensively offered in scientific research. (Patterchild, et al., April 1, 1943; Raven and Johnkid, 1999)

Optimistic Impacts

Economic Importance for Humans: Negative

Drosophila melanogaster has been known to over winter in storage facilites, where it have the right to consume/damage vast quatities of food. As proclaimed above, the fruit fly also lays its eggs on unripened fruit, and is thought about a pest in many type of locations. (Demeric 1950, Wilkid 1999)

Conservation Status

Other Comments

Drosophila melanogaster has actually been stupassed away in genetic research study laboratories for nearly a century. Because the fruit fly has actually a brief lifeexpectations, a straightforward genome, and also is quickly made to redevelop in captivity it is a prime caniday for hereditary research study. (Patterchild, et al., 1943)

In 1910 Thomas H. Morgan used Drosophila to provide the initially proof that the chromosomal theory of inheritance is correct. The chromosomal concept of inheritance claims that the chromosomes are the carriers of hereditary indevelopment. Mbody organ was the first to use Drosophila in hereditary reasearch.

In 1913 H. Sturtevant, a student of Morgan developed the first genetic maps using Drosophila melanogaster. Because that time the easy genome of Drosophila melanogaster has actually come to be extremely renowned, permitting for much of the progression of hereditary research.

Drosophila is likewise extensively offered by students of biology. (Raven and also Johnchild 1999) (Patterchild, et al., April 1, 1943; Raven and also Johnboy, 1999)


Sara Diamond (editor), Animal Diversity Internet.

Conrad Miller (author), Southwestern College, Stephanie Fabritius (editor), Southwestern College.