Resonance frameworks are a set of 2 or even more Lewis Structures that jointly define the digital bonding a single polyatomic species including fractional bonds and fractional charges. Resonance structures are capable of describing delocalized electrons that cannot be expressed by a solitary Lewis formula with an integer variety of covalent bonds.




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Sometimes one Lewis Structure is not Enough

Sometimes, also as soon as formal charges are considered, the bonding in some molecules or ions cannot be described by a single Lewis structure. Resonance is a way of describing delocalized electrons within certain molecules or polyatomic ions wbelow the bonding cannot be expressed by a solitary Lewis formula. A molecule or ion through such delocalized electrons is represented by several contributing structures (likewise called resonance structures or canonical forms). Such is the case for ozone ((ceO3)), an allotrope of oxygen through a V-shaped framework and an O–O–O angle of 117.5°.


Ozone ((O_3))

1. We know that ozone has a V-shaped framework, so one O atom is central:


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The Nitrate ((NO_3^-)) ion

1. Count up the valence electrons: (1*5) + (3*6) + 1(ion) = 24 electrons

2. Draw the bond connectivities:

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4. Place any leftover electrons (24-24 = 0) on the center atom:

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6. Does the central atom have an octet?

YES Are tbelow possible resonance structures? YES

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