Crater Lake Caldera
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Crater Lake Caldera: A satellite check out of Crater Lake, one of the world"s many well known calderas. Crater Lake developed around 7700 years ago once a huge volcanic eruption of Mount Mazama cleared a huge magma chamber below the hill. The fractured rock above the magma chamber collapsed to produce a huge crater over six miles throughout. Centuries of rain and scurrently filled the caldera, creating Crater Lake. With a depth of 1949 feet (594 meters), Crater Lake is the deepest lake in the United States and the ninth-deepest lake in the human being. The picture above was produced using Landsat GeoCover data from NASA. Enlarge photo.

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What is a Caldera?

Caldperiods are some of the a lot of spectacular functions on Planet. They are huge volcanic craters that form by 2 various methods: 1) an explosive volcanic eruption; or, 2) collapse of surchallenge rock into an empty magma chamber.

The accompanying picture is a satellite view of among the a lot of well known caldages - Crater Lake in Oregon. Crater Lake was formed about 7700 years earlier as soon as an substantial volcanic eruption of Mount Mazama cleared a large magma chamber listed below the hill. The fractured rock over the magma chamber broke down to produce a enormous craterover six miles throughout. Centuries of rain and also snow filled the caldera, developing Crater Lake. With a depth of 1949 feet (594 meters), Crater Lake is the deepest lake in the United States and the ninth-deepest lake in the world.


Collapse Calderas

Collapse caldperiods form once a big magma chamber is cleared by a volcanic eruption or by subsurface magma activity. The unsupported rock that creates the roof of the magma chamber then collapses to develop a large crater. Crater Lake and also many other caldperiods are thneed to have actually formed by this process.

The four-step illustration below explains exactly how the Crater Lake caldera is thshould have formed. The video on this page shows a table-optimal version of caldera development. This would certainly be an excellent activity for teachers to execute through their students, or they can simply show the video utilizing computer forecast.


Caldera demonstration: This video mirrors a teaching activity that plainly demonstprices exactly how a caldera is developed. It deserve to be hard to define or draw how a caldera creates. This table-top model is an excellent demonstration. Teachers deserve to execute this task with their students, or simply show the video in class making use of computer system estimate. Dina Venezky and Stephen Wessells, 2010, Caldera Demonstration Model: UNITED STATE Geological Survey Open-Data Report 2010-1173.


What Causes Explosive Eruptions at Kilauea?
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Explosive Eruptions at Kilauea: Many kind of of Kilauea"s pre-1924 explosive eruptions that created considerable ash deposits most likely occurred when the volcano"s summit crater was so deep that its floor was below the water table, letting groundwater seep in to create a lake. Whenever magma erupted right into the lake water, violent explosions of steam and volcanic gases resulted, fragmenting the magma into tiny ash particles and also driving fast-moving, extremely warm ash-laden steam clouds (pyroclastic surges) out of the crater. Image and caption by USGS.


Steps in the formation of Crater Lake Caldera
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Eruptions of ash and also pumice: The cataclysmic eruption started from a vent on the northeastern side of the volcano as a towering column of ash, through pyroclastic flows spreading to the northeast. Caldera collapse: As even more magma was erupted, cracks opened up up approximately the summit, which started to collapse. Fountains of pumice and ash surrounded the collapsing summit, and pyroclastic flows raced down all sides of the volcano. Steam explosions: When the dust had settled, the brand-new caldera was 5 miles (8 km) in diameter and also 1 mile (1.6 km) deep. Groundwater communicated via hot deposits, leading to explosions of heavy steam and ash. Today: In the first few hundred years after the cataclysmic eruption, renewed eruptions built Wizard Island, Merriam Cone, and also the central platform. Water filled the new caldera to form the deepest lake in the United States. Figure modified from diagrams on back of 1988 USGS map "Crater Lake National Park and Vicinity, Oregon." Illustration and subtitle by the United States Geological Survey.


Explosive Calderas

Explosive caldages are developed as soon as very huge magma chambers filled with silica-affluent melt and numerous gas relocate upwards from depth. Silica-affluent magmas have actually a very high viscosity that allows them to hold gas bubbles under exceptionally high pressures. As they rise to the surconfront, the reduction of pressure reasons the gases to expand. When break-with occurs the outcome have the right to be an huge explosion which blasts ameans large volumes of rock to develop the caldera. A few of these blasts eject many type of cubic kilometers of magma and also rock.


Yellowstone Caldera Chain
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Yellowstone Caldera Chain: The current caldera at Yellowstone is the most current in a series of eruptions that expectations countless years. The North Amerihave the right to Plate is moving west over a stationary hot spot. As the plate moves, the hotspot produces an huge eruption (and also a big caldera) eexceptionally few million years. This has actually developed neighborhood basaltic lavas and also a chain of rhyolitic caldera groups (circles, via eras in numerous years) alengthy the track of the Yellowstone warm spot. Image by USGS.


The Yellowrock Supervolcano & Caldera Chain

Yellowstone National Park is world-famed for its geysers and warm springs. Those thermal attributes are easy-to-observe proof of an energetic magma device beneath the Park. This magma mechanism has actually developed some of the biggest volcanic eruptions in Earth"s background - eruptions so huge that they have been called "supervolcanoes." One of these eruptions developed a caldera about 50 miles across that underlies most of Yellowstone National Park.


The Toba Explosive Eruption
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Toba Caldera: Landsat GeoCover picture of the caldera created by the Toba Supervolcano. It is currently the world"s biggest volcanic lake. The picture above was produced using Landsat GeoCover data from NASA. Enlarge image.


The Toba Supervolcano

About 73,000 years back, the eruption of Toba on the island of Sumatra, Indonesia created what is believed to be the largest explosive eruption on Earth in at leastern the past 25 million years.

The Toba blast is believed to have actually deforested much of central India - around 3000 miles from the eruption website. The blast is thought to have actually ejected around 800 cubic kilometers of ash into the atmosphere, producing a crater that is 100 kilometers lengthy and also 35 kilometers wide. The crater is now the site of the world"s largest volcanic lake.


Compare Explosive Eruptions
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Volcanic Explosivity is an approach of comparing the dimension of explosive volcanic eruptions by estimating the volume of material ejected. Our post on the "Volcanic Explosivity Index" gives a graphic comparichild of the Crater Lake, Toba, and also Yellowrock supervolcanoes.


Calderas on Other Planets
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Caldages on Other Planets: Complex caldera at the summit of Olympus Mons Volcano - a shield volcano that is the tallest function on Mars. This caldera is exceptionally comparable to the caldera facility at the summit of Earth"s biggest shield volcano - Mauna Loa Volcano on the island of Hawaii. Image by NASA.


Snow-Covered Calderas on Hawaii
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Mauna Loa Volcano: Snow-extended Moku"aweoweo Caldera atop Mauna Loa shield volcano (Mauna Kea in background) on the island also of Hawaii. The caldera is 3 x 5 km throughout, 183 m deep, and also is approximated to have actually fell down between 600-750 years ago. Several pit craters alengthy the top southwest rift zone of Mauna Loa (reduced right) additionally created by collapse of the ground. Image and also caption by USGS. Enbig image.


Aniakchak Caldera, Alaska
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Aniakchak Caldera in Alaska: Aniakchak Caldera, located in the Aleutian Range of Alaska, formed in the time of an huge explosive eruption that expelled even more than 50 km3 of magma about 3,450 years ago. The caldera is 10 kilometers in diameter and 500-1,000 meters deep. Subsequent eruptions developed domes, cinder cones, and also explosion pits on the caldera floor. Enlarge picture.


More Volcanoes
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Yellowstone Supervolcano
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Cinder Cones
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