Section 01: The Production Process

The Production Process

The manufacturing process entails converting resources (aka: factors of production, or inputs) into goods and solutions.

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Economic Resources

Tright here are 4 major categories of resources: land, funding, labor and also entrepreneurship.

1. Land

All organic resources both over and below the ground are part of the land resource including farm land also, pets, forests, water, minerals, and air. For the use of these sources, businesses pay a rental revenue.

2. Capital

Capital consists of man-made items such as structures, machinery, and also equipment. Unlike customer goods that directly accomplish our requirements and also wants this particular day, resources goods, such as machinery, increase our future efficiency which then enable us to create more of the items and solutions we want in the future. Interest earnings is the rerevolve or payment for the usage of funding. Note that while money is regularly referred to as funding, it is not an economic resource however sindicate enables or facilitates the purchase of among the resources.

3. Labor

The labor reresource contains both the physical and also psychological contribution of a worker. As a rerotate for the use of their labor, workers are passist a wage. Education and also task training increase the productivity of the labor reresource and also hence boost weras – as we’ll watch later in the course.

4. Entrepreneurship

The last reresource is entrepreneurship, which combines the other sources and also gives a good or company. These individuals take threats and also are rewarded with profits when their principles are effective.

All inputs or factors of manufacturing can be categorized into among these four sources.


See if you deserve to classify each of the adhering to resources. Do any type of of them fit right into even more than one category?

Land Capital Labor Entrepreneurship
Crude oil
A worker in a General Motors plant
A copy machine
An watering canal
Bill Gates
A windmill

Section 02: Circular Flow and the Market System

Circular Flow and the Market System

Eextremely society encounters some key questions: What products and services to produce? How to develop those items and services? and also for whom? How a society chooses to answer these inquiries will certainly in a big component recognize the prosperity of the society, its distribution of wide range, and also the range of products and services easily accessible. Societies answer these concerns either with a decentral system using industries, a command or central mechanism utilizing government planning, or some combination of the 2.

In a industry mechanism, the households own the sources and willingly supply those to businesses in the resource market in rerevolve for a payment for the usage of those resources. Remember that families are passist wages for their labor, interemainder for their funding, rent for their land also, and profit for their entrepreneurial capacity. Businesses are willing to purchase the resources, provided they can convert them right into items and services that will rerotate at least a normal profit. The quantities and also prices of sources are determined by the supply and demand of the sources in the resource market.


Households use the payments they obtain from the usage of their sources to purchases products and solutions that businesses produce. The provision and purchase of goods and also solutions takes area in the product market. In the center ring is the flow of sources and also products and also solutions, while the outer ring is wbelow the financial transactions take area. In this basic circular flow diagram, we see the basic flows and worqueens of a sector economy.


Market System Questions

Tright here are three main questions that sector systems answer for a culture.

1. What to produce?

2. How to produce?

3. For whom to produce?


Capitalism is a industry device that relies on private property and the use of industries to answer the societal concerns of what to produce, how to create it, and for whom. A essential feature of capitalism is that individuals act in their very own self-interest as they look for to enhance their health. Households willingly supply their resources so that they have the right to purchase products and services which they worth more. Due to the fact that consumers are able to purchase the items and services they desire, they vote with their dollars and also signal to the industry what is of worth to them. If a business is not creating what is in demand, they will certainly discover that they are much better off to use their sources creating something else that consumers desire. Hence in a industry economic climate, the consumers are the ones that ultimately identify what will certainly be developed.

Under capitalism, individuals are rewarded for their contribution based on how culture values that contribution. This is one factor why the church strongly encourages each member to gain a good education. While pure capitalism rewards people for their contribution, people are likewise exposed to the risks of the sector if they are not producing what consumers want. This provides an motivation to work-related towards ideal meeting the requirements and also desires of consumers, yet it additionally can result in a large variation in the distribution of income.

Consider the highlighted sentence in the adhering to quote by President Hinckley:

--Gordon B. Hinckley, Teachings of Gordon B. Hinckley, 172–173.

As Adam Smith outlined, each person seeking their very own self interest in turn promotes the ideal interest of culture by creating those goods and also services many wanted, all as if by an invisible hand also. According to him, each individual, seeking only his own gain, "is led by an invisible hand also to promote an end which was no component of his intention"--that finish being the public interest.

The view of capitalism is that industries attribute without government regulate, for this reason it does not need government intervention. The term Laissez-faire is French, fundamentally interpretation leave it alone. Under capitalism, businesses have actually an catalyst to always produce in the leastern cost manner. If they are not producing in the leastern price manner, one more company would be able to produce the product at a lower cost, underreduced the competition, and take ameans sales. As brand-new modern technologies are emerged, firms have actually an impetus to adopt the modern technologies if doing so will certainly permit them to produce at a reduced expense. With the use of the markets, items and services will certainly be dispersed to those that are willing and also able to pay the industry price; therefore, the market price serves as the rationing device, determining who gets the product.


An different economic device is socialism, in which the federal government seeks to usage the nation’s resources for all of its citizens, rather of letting the citizens use the resources in the manner they finest see fit. Therefore, under socialism the government owns or controls the residential or commercial property and also answers the three concerns of what to produce, how to create, and also for whom. Tright here are various levels of socialism, one being Communism, that was envisioned by Karl Marx consisting of collective ownership of resources and decisions made by main planning committees. Under socialism, there is one pie that is split among every one of the citizens. Unfortunately, main planners with the best intentions might not be able to reexisting each people preferences in their options. Since of scarcity, main planners must decide not just what to produce, but additionally how to ration the developed products and also services among the miscellaneous consumers (respeak to tbelow will constantly be boundless desires and also restricted resources). The difficulty of determining that gets a product is regularly shed on the casual observer of centrally planned economic situations – but this is just one of the most difficult decisions that hregarding be made – that will go without! Winston Churchill stated: “The innate vice of capitalism is the unequal sharing of blessings; the innate virtue of socialism is the equal sharing of miseries.”

Most nations in the world, including the USA, use a mix of personal and federal government enterprises to alsituate the nation’s sources in providing goods and services. These mixed economies rely on the exclusive industry to produce and also allocate certain goods and solutions while the government controls the provision of other items, such as welfare and Medicassist in the USA.

The United Order

As members of the Church, we identify that there will certainly some day be an financial device in location that will certainly be uniquely different from the present economic units of today. That mechanism is occasionally referred to as "The United Order."

In the United Order, individual residential or commercial property civil liberties will certainly be an important component in the economic situation. Marion G. Romney taught: “As to building, in harmony with Church belief as collection forth in the Doctrine and Covenants, no government deserve to exist in tranquility, other than such legislations are framed and also hosted inviolate as will secure to each individual the totally free exercise of conscientific research, the right and also control of residential property.” (D&C 134:2.) The united order is operated upon the principle of private ownership and individual management. Hence, in both ownership and also administration of building, the unified order preserved to males their God-offered company. In this way, He holds each steward accountable for his very own work and productivity. “

The United Order, according to Elder Harold B. Lee, is “more capitalistic … than either Socialism or Communism, in that personal ownership and individual obligation will certainly be maintained” (In Conference Report, Oct. 1941, p. 113.). J. Reuben Clark, Jr. said: “The Church never was, and also under existing commandments never will certainly be, a communal culture, under the directions therefore far given by the Lord. The United Order was not communal nor communistic. It was entirely and also strongly individualistic, with a consecration of unneeded surplsupplies for the assistance of the Church and also the poor.” (J. Reuben Clark, Jr., “The United Order and also Law of Consecration As Set Out in the Revelations of the Lord,” from a pamphlet of posts reprinted from the Church Section of the Deseret News, 1942, pp. 26–27.)

Circular Flow via Government

When federal government becomes a player in the economic situation, they communicate via family members and businesses through taxation and transfers. The federal government likewise purchases resources from the resource sectors as well as products and services from the product market. As the economic situation opens trade via other countries, international countries demand and supply products and solutions in the product market, as well as demand also and supply sources in the resource industry.



Think about how the fear of a recession would certainly be reflected in the circular flow diagram. How would consumers react? How would certainly producers react?

Unfortunately, family expectations often become “self-fulfilling prophecies.” If family members fear that they may lose their job if a recession occurs, they may begin to spend less and conserve for the “rainy day.” This decrease in the demand also for items and services in turn reasons businesses to demand fewer sources, and also the task cuts that were meant happen.

Section 03: Production Possibilities Curve

Production Possibilities Curve

As a culture, we create literally hundreds of different products and solutions. To much better understand the trade-offs challenged by an individual or society, we are going to use an economic design referred to as the manufacturing possibilities curve (PPC), periodically described as the manufacturing possibilitiesfrontier (PPF). Recontact that an financial design is asimplificationof the actual worldand also is designed to show financial theories. In this case, we will assume that just twodifferent items or solutions can be produced. Theproduction possibilities curve shows the maximum combicountry of thesetwo goods or solutions that deserve to be produced given our present innovation and sources.

Let’s say that our class stood for a country and also we were going to produce dwellings and software programs. Given our current modern technology and also resources, the table listed below mirrors the different combinations of homes and software program programs that we can produce as a society throughout the following year utilizing all our resources in an effective manner. The curve on the graph is the manufacturing possibilities curve or frontier which shows the maximum combination of dwellings and also software program programs we are capable of creating.


The PPC has actually a bowed out or concave shape, considering that some resources are better at producing one item than they are an additional. A hammer is a great tool for building dwellings, however has actually little use in developing a software application routine. Likewise, those via programming suffer might carry out a good project computer programming, however lack building and construction skills.

To be on the production possibilities curve, we assume that innovation and resources are fixed and that we are utilizing every one of our resources. We likewise assume manufacturing effectiveness definition that we are unable to produce more of one output without producing much less of the other output. Note that eextremely combination on the line and below the line is attainable while those points exterior the line are not attainable, offered our present sources and also technology. Since we have limited resources, the manufacturing possibilities curve mirrors scarcity because we are restricted on the amount of products and solutions that can be produced.


Marginal Opportunity Cost

The production possibilities curve also shows opportunity costs, considering that to acquire more of one great we have to sacrifice some of the various other. The marginal chance cost procedures the amount of an excellent that hregarding be sacrificed for each extra unit of the various other excellent.


When everyone is functioning on residences we can produce 20 dwellings every year. If we wanted 2 computer programs we would certainly need to sacrifice two homes. Therefore the marginal possibility cost would be 1 house for each extra computer regimen. Who would be the people we would certainly want to relocate from construction to programming? Likely those individuals who are excellent at programming and not very great at building homes.


If we wanted a secondary 2 computer programs, we would have to sacrifice 4 houses or 2 dwellings for each extra routine. Note that the marginal possibility cost is raising.


As we desire more and more computer system programs the number of dwellings we have to sacrifice per computer system regimen boosts. The raising marginal possibility cost is because of the truth that some sources are much better suited for developing one great than another. At some point, we need to take knowledgeable building and construction workers and collection them down behind a computer and also tell them to begin programming.


As we relocate from point A to allude B, we sacrifice one home for each additional routine. As we want more programs, the marginal chance expense rises to 2, then 3, and also finally as we relocate from point D to E, we must sacrifice 4 residences for each additional computer regimen. Therefore we check out that we have actually a raising marginal chance cost as more of the good is produced.


Going the opposite direction, we can compute the marginal chance price for another house. If we were producing 8 software program programs and also wanted some real estate, we would need to offer up 2 computer system programs to obtain 8 homes, relocating from point E to D. Hence a marginal opportunity cost would certainly be one-fourth of a software program per residence. As we desire more dwellings, the variety of computer system programs we would certainly have to sacrifice per home would certainly increase from .25 (E to D) to .33 (D to C), .5 (C to B) and 1 (B to A). For simplicity, we assume that we need to develop at among the points A with E. Note that as we create more residences the marginal opportunity costs boosts.


Allocative Efficiency

While each point on the production possibilities curve is productively effective, tright here is only one allude that is allocatively efficient - that is the combination of goods and services most wanted by society. In a market economic situation that combicountry is determined by supply and also demand. If no one desires a details excellent, the producer will uncover that he or she is much better off using the resources to develop somepoint else. Thus, the pricing device signals to producers what consumers desire.


Economic Growth

Recontact the PPC is based on a solved collection of resources and also modern technology. As new sources are uncovered, such as brand-new oil deposits in Wyoming, we are able to create even more as a culture. If the high quality of the resources enhances, we are able to change the PPC exterior. A workpressure with a bachelors degree would certainly be even more abundant than one with just an elementary education. As a society grows, consisting of immigration, there are even more workers that are able to develop more goods and solutions.

Technology likewise plays a crucial function in the expansion of an economic situation. As brand-new innovations are developed, sources are freed approximately develop various other products and services. A culture that produces resources goods (e.g., machinery) this particular day foregoes the benefit of the customer items that can have been developed, however is then able to boost the production of products and also services later due to the machinery and also other renovations that have been made. In 1950, one farmer in the UNITED STATE fed 15 other human being. By 1995, that number had enhanced to 128 and continues to rise. As innovation advances and also farmers usage more and even more resources, not as many people are forced to be in agriculture and also are able to go create cars, TVs, and also various other products and also services that we reap.

Reference: Agrisociety, Technology and also the Economy Agrisociety, Technology and the Economy Federal Reserve Bank of Dallas:


Biased Technologies

Biased modern technologies only affect the production of one great. For instance, the printing press enabled for even more books to be produced, yet didn’t boost the variety of wagons (if all resources were devoted to wagon production). When both products are being developed, a biased technology reduces the variety of sources being forced to produce that good, so more of the sources can be devoted to producing the other excellent.

Graphically, if the economic situation is at point A, the innovation of the printing press would certainly permit the economic climate to relocate to suggest B, the exact same number of books with more wagons, or allude C, the same number of wagons through more books.


Shifts of the Production Possibilities Curve

Inward Change of the Production Possibilities Curve

If a society loses sources, the production possibilities curve would certainly change in. The loss of resources might come around from battle, organic catastrophes, such as earthquakes or hurricanes, or disease, such as AIDS.


Movements Ameans from the Production Possibilities Curve

If the sources or modern technology of a society readjust, the PCOMPUTER will shift in or out. However before, the PPC does not change when resources are left unprovided or when they are not offered efficiently. In this latter case, production would certainly ssuggest be depicted by a allude inside the PPC, i.e. culture would certainly be moving away from the PCOMPUTER to an inner point. For instance, a boost in the joblessness price would relocate a culture additionally inside the PCOMPUTER. Keep in mind that the sources still exist so the PPC has not changed, we are simply not making use of every one of sources that we have.


Moving Toward the Production Possibilities Curve

Conversely, if even more unused resources are offered or the sources are offered even more efficiently (not because of a readjust in technology), the society would certainly move towards the PPC.


Moving Alengthy the Productions Possibilities Curve

Movement along the PCOMPUTER occurs as soon as tbelow is a readjust in the combination of products and also services developed. In a market economic climate, consumers signal to producers the kinds of items and services they require, desire and are willing to pay for.



Explain exactly how the Production Possibilities Curve mirrors scarcity and also opportunity price. Think of personal examples that will certainly relocate you amethod from or twoard the Production Possibilities Curve or change the Production Possibilities Curve (e.g., the 2010 earthquakes in Haiti and Chile).

Section 04: Comparative Advantage

Absolute Advantage

Adam Smith taught the prominence of expertise and also profession.

“It is maxim of eincredibly prudent master of a family, never to attempt to make at home what will certainly price him even more to make than to buy. The taylor does not attempt to make his own shoes, but buys them of the shoemaker.”

-- Adam Smith, 1776

When Adam Smith spoke of the benefits from trade, he was referring to individuals specializing in the production of an excellent or organization for which they had actually an absolute advantage. An individual or nation has an absolute benefit in the manufacturing of an excellent when she/it can create the excellent utilizing fewer sources than one more. For example, assume on one acre of land also Cain deserve to produce 100 lbs of potatoes or 2 lambs (or some direct combination of the 2 products), and Abel deserve to produce 50 lbs of potatoes or 4 lambs (or some direct combicountry of the 2 products). Cain would have an absolute advantage in potatoes and also Abel in lambs. In this instance, Adam Smith would argue tright here is a basis for profession that would make them both much better off. Let"s say without profession the brothers use their land to create half of each product, i.e. Cain produces 50 lbs of potatoes and also 1 lamb; Abel produces 25 lbs of potatoes and 2 lambs. If they specialize then Cain would certainly develop potatoes (100 lbs) and Abel would produce lambs (4). They can then profession say 25 lbs of potatoes for 1 lamb and also both would certainly be better off (Cain would certainly then have actually 75 lbs of potatoes and 1 lamb and Abel would certainly have 25 lbs of potatoes and 3 lambs) - both are much better off! But what if an individual or country has actually an absolute benefit in many type of things, would certainly tright here still be benefit to specializing and trading?

Two-Human Economy

To see if there are advantages to profession, also if one individual has an absolute benefit, let’s usage the instance of an deserted island with just 2 individuals: Robinboy Crusoe and also Friday.

Assume that their diet will certainly consist of fish and coconuts and also that Robinchild deserve to capture 4 fish per hour or gather 6 coconuts per hour, while Friday can capture 3 fish per hour or gather 2 coconuts per hour. Note the Robinson has an absolute advantage in both fishing and coconut gathering. If each perboy desires 6 fish and also 6 coconuts per day, would tbelow be an benefit in them specializing and trading?

If they don’t specialize, just how long will it take each perboy working alone to accomplish their daily needs? Robinson would certainly spend an hour and also a half fishing and also one hour gathering coconuts for a total of 2.5 hours. Friday will spfinish 2 hours fishing and 3 hrs gathering coconuts for a total of 5 hours.

If Robinson invested an hour fishing instead of gathering coconuts, he would have to give up 6 coconuts to obtain 4 fish, so his marginal chance cost per extra fish is (6 split by 4) or 1.5 coconuts per fish. If instead he invested an hour gathering coconuts, he would give up 4 fish and also acquire 6 coconuts. Robinson’s marginal opportunity price per coconut would be (4 divided by 6) or two-thirds of a fish. Friday’s marginal possibility price of spfinishing an hour fishing instead of gathering coconuts would be 2 coconuts for 3 fish or 2 thirds of a coconut per fish. His marginal chance expense per extra fish would certainly be 3 fish (split by 2 coconuts) or 1.5 fish per coconut.

To view if there are benefits to specializing and trading, we currently look at the marginal opportunity cost of each. We find that the marginal opportunity price per additional fish is less for Friday compared to Robinchild. Friday provides up just 2/3 of a coconut per added fish compared to Robinson’s 1.5 coconuts per extra fish. Since Friday has a lower marginal possibility price for fishing, he is said to have actually a comparative advantage in fishing. In comparing the marginal opportunity expense for gathering coconuts, we discover that Friday’s is 1.5 fish per coconut while Robinson’s is just 2/3 of a fish per coconut. Hence, Robinkid is shelp to have actually a comparative benefit in coconut gathering while Friday has a comparative benefit in fishing.

Comparative Advantage

An individual is said to have a comparative advantage if she has fairly lower marginal possibility costs than another individual. Respeak to from earlier that marginal possibility expense is sacrifice split by acquire. Just as people have a comparative advantage, nations have comparative benefits based on what sources they possess. Can comparative benefit (having reduced opportunity costs) create the basis for mutually beneficial trade? Yes! When field of expertise takes location according to comparative advantage, the trading individuals (or countries) will both be much better off. The concept of comparative advantage was taught by English economist David Ricardo (1772 – 1823) who stated that it is comparative advantage that will permit both countries to obtain from profession.


Specialization and Trading

Is it valuable for Robinboy Crusoe to specialize in gathering coconuts, even though he can execute both fishing and also coconut gathering better than Friday? If they each specialize, what will certainly be the moment savings to each?

If Robinkid specializes in gathering coconuts and he should now gather 12 coconuts (6 for himself and also 6 for Friday), and would have to work 2 hrs. Friday specializing in fish would must spfinish 4 hours to gather sufficient fish for himself and also Robinboy.

Even though he has an absolute benefit, Robinchild is able to save fifty percent an hour by specializing and trading. Friday is able to conserve an hour of time by specializing and trading. Even though Friday gains more than Robinkid from specializing, each perkid is much better off.

We have the right to reexisting Robinkid Crusoe"s and also Friday"s manufacturing abilities making use of PPCs. Note that bereason we are assuming that they can switch from fish to coconuts at a constant rate that the PComputers will be straight rather than bowed exterior as we experienced earlier (i.e. quite than enhancing chance costs as we experienced in the PComputers prior to, they have constant possibility costs).

Friday’s output per hour is presented by the PCOMPUTER closest to the origin. He have the right to gather 3 fish per hour or 2 coconuts per hour. Robinson’s PCOMPUTER is higher than Fridays because he has an absolute advantage in producing both products. If they don’t specialize, their joint manufacturing without specializing is stood for by the PCOMPUTER furthest from the beginning.


Specialization permits the joint PCOMPUTER to change out even additionally. If they only produced fish, they could still only produce 7 fish per hour, and also both gathering coconuts would certainly enable them to gather 8 per hour. By Robinkid specializing in coconuts and also Friday in fish, they can have 3 coconuts and also 6 fish by each working an hour. The outward change reflects the gains from specializing and also trading.


Terms of Trade

For profession to take area, each individual should benefit. An individual would not be willing to trade for a great that would certainly expense him more than he or she might make by themselves. Highest and lowest rates at which the goods would profession for are identified by each individual"s marginal possibility cost. In our instance, Friday is specializing in fish manufacturing and Robinchild in gathering coconuts. Since they each desire some of both, the terms of trade would have to be acceptable to both. The regards to trade would certainly include the rate at which one good would certainly trade for one more. In looking at the marginal chance expenses, we see that the terms of trade selection from 2/3 to 1.5. Friday have to receive at least 2/3 of a coconut for each fish he offers up, and also Robinkid would not be willing to pay more than 1.5 coconuts for each fish he receives. Somewhere in between this array, both people would certainly advantage. Read the complying with quote by President James E. Faust, paying unique attention to the highlighted sentences.

We live in a period of specialization. When I was a boy, many type of civilization had Model T Fords. Contrasted to contemporary cars, they were relatively basic mechanically. Many kind of world were able to fix their very own cars by grinding the valves, transforming the rings on the pisloads, putting in new brake bands, and also using a generous supply of baling wire. Nowadays automobiles are so innovative that the average perkid knows exceptionally little bit around how to repair them. The mechanics these days use a computer to diagnose engine problems. I cite this instance to encourage you young guys to gain training and also education and learning in order to store up. Technical education is very vital, and also the same point is true in fields of greater education. Any type of ability calls for specialized learning.

- Pres. Faust – Blog post to My Grandsons, Sat. Priesthood Session April 2007.

As Adam Smith points out: “What is prudence in the conduct of every personal family members, can scarce be folly in that of an excellent kingdom. If a international nation have the right to supply us through a commodity cheaper than we deserve to make it, better buy it of them with some part of the produce of our very own sector, employed in a method in which we have actually some benefit.”

Because the sources of each country differ, there is a advantage to specializing in a good in which we have actually a comparative benefit. Although we might have the sources to thrive bananas in Idaho, we carry out not have actually a comparative benefit in banana production. Thus we specialize in potatoes and also various other items and services for which we have actually a comparative benefit and profession for bananas and other tropical fruits from nations that have actually a comparative advantage in producing those items.

Trade can improve the financial well being of the people and also frequently the political connections among the different countries. We check out examples of this in the bibles, particularly in the Publication of Mormon.

And it concerned pass that the Lamanites did also go whithersoever they would certainly, whether it were among the Lamanites or among the Nephites; and thus they did have actually totally free intercourse one via one more, to buy and to market, and to acquire get, according to their desire.

And it came to pass that they became exceedingly well-off, both the Lamanites and the Nephites … (Helaman 6:8-9)


Try to answer the following practice concerns.

1. Allan and Ryan live on an island. In someday, Allan can catch 10 fish per day or gather 5 coconuts, in the exact same amount of time, Ryan can capture 8 fish or gather 8 coconuts. Does either one have an absolute advantage in either good?

2. Compute the marginal chance price for each.

3. Determine who has actually a comparative advantage in each good.

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4. Who need to specialize in which good?

Due to the fact that Allan has a reduced marginal chance price for fishing compared to Ryan, he has a comparative advantage and must specialize in fishing . Ryan has actually a comparative benefit in gathering coconuts since he only offers up one fish while Allan have to give up 2 fish per coconut.