The Rock Cycle

The rock cycle is a series of procedures that create and also transform the kinds of rocks in Earth’s crust.

You are watching: The rock cycle includes all of the steps except which of the following?


Reunion Island also Volcano

Active volcanoes like this one on Reunion Island—east of Madagasvehicle, in the Indian Ocean—forms a form of igneous rock. Extrusive, or volcanic, igneous rocks are developed as soon as molten warm product cools and solidifies.

Photograph by Steve Raymer


Tright here are 3 main types of rocks: sedimentary, igneous, and metamorphic. Each of these rocks are formed by physical changes—such as melting, cooling, eroding, compacting, or deforming—that are component of the rock cycle.Sedimentary RocksSedimentary rocks are formed from pieces of other existing rock or organic product. There are three various types of sedimentary rocks: clastic, organic (biological), and also chemical. Clastic sedimentary rocks, favor sandrock, form from clasts, or pieces of various other rock. Organic sedimentary rocks, choose coal, develop from hard, organic materials choose plants, shells, and bones that are compressed right into rock. The formation of clastic and also organic rocks starts via the weathering, or breaking down, of the exposed rock into tiny pieces. Thstormy the process of erosion, these fragments are rerelocated from their resource and transported by wind, water, ice, or biological activity to a new place. Once the sediment settles somewhere, and enough of it collects, the lowest layers end up being compacted so tightly that they develop solid rock.Chemical sedimentary rocks, prefer limerock, halite, and flint, form from chemical precipitation. A chemical precipitate is a chemical compound—for instance, calcium carbonate, salt, and silica—that develops once the solution it is dissolved in, commonly water, evapoprices and also leaves the compound behind. This occurs as water travels through Earth’s crust, weathering the rock and disaddressing some of its minerals, moving it elsewhere. These liquified minerals are precipitated when the water evapoprices.Metamorphic RocksMetamorphic rocks are rocks that have actually been changed from their original create by tremendous warmth or push. Metamorphic rocks have actually 2 classes: foliated and also nonfoliated. When a rock through level or elongated minerals is put under enormous pressure, the minerals line up in layers, producing foliation. Foliation is the aligning of elongated or platy minerals, choose hornblende or mica, perpendicular to the direction of pressure that is used. An example of this transformation have the right to be viewed via granite, an igneous rock. Granite contains lengthy and also platy minerals that are not initially aligned, yet once enough pressure is included, those minerals shift to all point in the same direction while acquiring squeezed right into flat sheets. When granite undergoes this procedure, favor at a tectonic plate boundary, it transforms into gneiss (pronounced “nice”).Nonfoliated rocks are created the same means, but they perform not contain the minerals that tend to line up under push and hence perform not have the layered appearance of foliated rocks. Sedimentary rocks favor bituminous coal, limerock, and sandstone, offered enough warmth and also pressure, can revolve right into nonfoliated metamorphic rocks prefer anthramention coal, marble, and also quartzite. Nonfoliated rocks deserve to additionally form by metamorphism, which happens when magma comes in contact via the surrounding rock.Igneous RocksIgneous rocks (obtained from the Latin word for fire) are created as soon as molten hot product cools and solidifies. Igneous rocks deserve to additionally be made a pair of various means. When they are created inside of the earth, they are called intrusive, or plutonic, igneous rocks. If they are created outside or on height of Earth’s crust, they are referred to as extrusive, or volcanic, igneous rocks.Granite and also diorite are examples of prevalent intrusive rocks. They have actually a coarse texture through huge mineral grains, indicating that they invested thousands or millions of years cooling down inside the earth, a time course that permitted big mineral crystals to grow.Additionally, rocks prefer basalt and obsidian have actually incredibly little grains and a reasonably fine texture. This happens bereason as soon as magma erupts right into lava, it cools more easily than it would certainly if it stayed inside the earth, providing crystals much less time to develop. Obsidian cools into volcanic glass so quickly when ejected that the grains are difficult to view via the naked eye.Extrusive igneous rocks have the right to additionally have actually a vesicular, or “holey” texture. This happens once the ejected magma still has gases inside of it so as soon as it cools, the gas bubbles are trapped and end up offering the rock a bubbly texture. An example of this would be pumice.

See more: The Energy Required To Initiate An Exergonic Reaction Is Called

Active volcanoes favor this one on Reunion Island—eastern of Madagasvehicle,in the Indian Ocean—forms a type of igneous rock. Extrusive, or volcanic, igneous rocks are formed as soon as molten hot product cools and solidifies.