Learn a faster, much easier course to publishing in a high-high quality journal. soimg.org ONE assures fair, rigorous peer evaluation, broad scope, and also wide readership – a perfect fit for your study every time.

Find Out More Submit Now

Click through the soimg.org taxonomy to find write-ups in your field.

You are watching: The relationship between gender and somatic symptom disorder generally is that:

For even more indevelopment around soimg.org Subject Areas, click here.

Revisiting Gender Differences in Somatic Symptoms of Depression: Much Acarry out about Nothing? Vanessa C. Delisle, Aaron T. Beck, Keith S. Dobchild, David J. A. Dozois, Brett D. Thombs




Woguys have a greater prevalence of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) and also report more significant depressive symptoms than males. Several researches have actually argued that gender differences in depression might happen bereason women report better levels of somatic symptoms than guys. Those studies, yet, have actually not regulated or matched for non-somatic symptoms. The objective of this study was to research if woguys report reasonably more somatic symptoms than guys matched on cognitive/affective symptoms.


Male and also female patients receiving treatment for MDD in outpatient psychiatric clinics in New Jersey and Pennsylvania, USA were matched on Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) cognitive/affective symptom scores. Male and female BDI-II somatic symptom scores were compared making use of independent samples 2-tailed t-tests.


Of 472 male and 1,026 female patients, there were 470 male patients (intend age = 40.1 years, SD = 15.1) and also 470 female patients (expect age = 43.1 years, SD = 17.2) effectively matched on BDI-II cognitive/affective symptom scores. Somatic symptoms accounted for 35% of full BDI-II scores for male patients versus 38% for matched female patients. Female patients had actually somatic symptom scores on average 1.3 points better than males (p


Gender distinctions in somatic scores were very tiny. Hence, differences in the endure and also reporting of somatic symptoms would not most likely describe sex differences in depression prices and symptom severity.


Women are 2–3 times even more likely to suffer Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) than guys <1>, <2> and have actually greater scores on self-report depression symptom measures <3>, <4>. The higher pervasiveness of MDD among woguys compared to men starts in at an early stage adolescence and also proceeds through adulthood <5>, <6>. Similarly, women are more most likely to be diagnosed via various other psychiatric disorders that involve physical symptoms, consisting of somatocreate disorders, such as Somatization Disorder and also Convariation Disorder <7>–<9>. Some of the symptoms of these disorders overlap considerably via symptoms of MDD. Women might also even more generally report various other physical symptoms potentially pertained to emotional dianxiety (e.g., headache, ago pain) than guys <10>–<12>.

Many kind of researches have examined whether men and woguys report somatic symptoms of depression in different ways or whether the variety of somatic symptoms reported by guys and woguys might explain gender distinctions in depression rates and severity <8>, <13>–<26>. Since woguys have higher rates of depression than guys, it would certainly be expected that women would have actually higher cognitive/affective and somatic symptoms than men on average, but that the complace of symptoms among men and womales would certainly be similar. Otherwise, it would indicate that assessments of depression prices or severity may reflect different symptoms for males and womales. Amongst world diagnosed via MDD, if tbelow were even more somatic symptoms among women, this would certainly raise the possibility that boosted reporting of somatic symptoms potentially unregarded depression might affect the diagnosis of depression among womales.

Two studies have actually used information from huge US population surveys to study whether tbelow were sex distinctions in the prices of “somatic depression” among human being through MDD <21>, <22>. In those studies, “somatic depression,” was defined as having actually appetite disturbance, sleep disturbance and tiredness. The studies reported that woguys with MDD were twice as most likely to endorse all three somatic symptoms versus guys through MDD and also therefore, that womales through MDD were twice as likely to suffer “somatic depression” than guys with MDD. Men conversely, were slightly more most likely than womales to report a combination of cognitive/affective and also somatic symptoms or just cognitive/affective symptoms. The conclusions of the studies said that differences in rates of “somatic depression” could describe better prices of depression among women compared to men. However, in one of the research studies, which offered information from the National Comorbidity Survey, the absolute price of “somatic depression” was only 8% for womales through MDD and 4% for men through MDD <21>. In the various other research, which combined information from the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) Collaborative Study on the Psychobiology of Depression and the Epidemiologic Catchment Area (ECA) Study, the absolute rates were 3% for womales through MDD and 1.5% for men via MDD <22>. Thus, among civilization via MDD, somatic symptoms were even more influential among women compared to men. Notably, but, although the loved one price of “somatic depression” was larger for women, the proportion of depressed men and also women through “somatic depression” was very tiny in both research studies. Additionally, the absolute distinction in rates of “somatic depression” was incredibly small. In addition, neither examine regulated for the as a whole number of symptoms endorsed. Thus, it is possible that the better likelihood of endorsing all 3 somatic symptoms among woguys compared to guys reflected a higher variety of symptoms as a whole fairly than raised somatic symptoms, particularly.

Many kind of other research studies have examined whether there are gender distinctions in the endorsement of individual depressive symptoms <8>, <13>–<20>, <23>–<26>. The results of those researches, yet, have actually been incontinual. Some research studies have established some somatic symptoms even more generally reported by womales, yet not the exact same somatic symptoms across studies <8>, <14>–<20>, <23>–<26>. On the other hand also, a variety of studies have actually established cognitive/affective symptoms more commonly reported by woguys than guys <8>, <13>, <15>, <23>, <24>.

See more: The Feudal System Probably Would Not Have Developed If The Roman Empire Continued. Why?

Hence, it is not clear whether and to what level womales report greater levels of somatic symptoms than men with equivalent levels of cognitive/affective symptoms. MDD is diagnosed per the DSM-IV <9> based upon the visibility of at leastern 5 of 9 symptoms, consisting of 1 of 2 core symptoms of depressed mood or anhedonia. For the objective of evaluating the relative somatic symptom burden of women and also guys with MDD, yet, consistent actions, such as the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) <27> may be advantageous compared to ssuggest counting symptoms. The factor for this is that continuous measures assess a more comprehensive array of symptom experiences and also administer constant scores that allow parsing of variance right into somatic and cognitive/affective components. The objective of this examine wregarding identify whether women with MDD report greater levels of somatic symptoms on the BDI-II than males via MDD matched on cognitive/affective BDI-II symptoms.