Computer Hardware

Computers have actually 2 primary parts: hardware and softwareLike piano (hardware) and music (software)In this section: hardwareThe computer system is an amazingly advantageous general-purpose technology, to the point that now camages, phones, thermostats, and also more are all currently little computers. This section will present major components and also themes of exactly how computer system hardware works. "Hardware" refers the physical components of the computer, and also "software" describes the code that runs on the computer system.

You are watching: The physical components of a computer are referred to as ____.

Chips and also Transistors

Transistor - crucial digital structure block -Transistors are "solid state" - no moving parts -One of the a lot of crucial innovations in history -"Switch" that we can rotate on/off with an electric signalSilicon chip - fingernail sized item of siliconMicroscopic transistors are etched onto silicon chipsChips deserve to contain billions of transistorsChips are packaged in plastic, via bit metal legse.g. CPU chips, memory chips, flash chipsSilsymbol (metalloid) vs. Silicone (soft substance on cooking utensils)Here is a silsymbol chip inside its plastic package. I pulled this out of the e-waste pile at the soimg.org CS building, so it"s most likely sort of old. This is a little chip with simply a few "pins" of electrical link. Later we"ll view a bigger chip through hundreds of pins.
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The tough drive or flash drive gives persistent storage as a level location of bytes without a lot structure. Usually the tough disk or flash disk is formatted through a "file system" which organizes the bytes right into the acquainted pattern of papers and directories, where each file and magazine has actually a rather helpful name favor "resume.txt". When you affix the drive to a computer system, the computer system presents the drive"s file device to the user, enabling them open papers, move file approximately, etc.Essentially, each file in the file mechanism describes a block of bytes, so the "flowers.jpg" name refers to a block of 48KB of bytes which are the data of that image. The file device in result provides the user a name (and also most likely an icon) for a block of data bytes, and also enables the user to perform operations on that data, like move it or copy it or open up it via a program. The file mechanism likewise tracks information about the bytes: how many there are, the moment they were last modified.Microsoft provides the proprietary NTFS file system, and also Mac OS X has actually its Apple proprietary HFS+ identical. Many tools (cameras, MP3 players) usage the extremely old Microsoft FAT32 file device on their flash cards. FAT32 is an old and primitive file system, but it is great where wide support is vital.

Persistent Storage Examples

This one is simple to understand, given that you have actually provided files and also files sytemse.g. 100 separate 1 GB video files .. need 100 GB of storage capacity

Pictures of Hardware

Below are imperiods of a low-finish Shuttle computer system via a 1.8ghz CPU, 512MB of RAM, and also a 160GB hard drive. It expense around $200 in approximately 2008. It damaged, and so ended up being a classroom instance.Here is the level "motherboard", a little smaller sized than a 8.5 x 11 piece of paper, that the assorted components plug in to. At the center is the CPU. At the much ideal is the RAM memory. Just to the right of the CPU are a couple assistance chips. Prominently, one of the chips is extended with a copper "heatsink" .. this presses tightly versus the chip, dissipating the warm from the chip into the neighboring air. The CPU also had an extremely large heatsink, however it was removed to make the CPU visible.MotherboardCPU metal package, held by leverCopper heatsinkpicture of motherboardThe CPU is organized tightly versus the motherboard by a small lever before system. Here the mechanism is released so the CPU deserve to be picked up. The fingernail sized CPU is packaged underneath this steel cover which helps conduct the warm from the CPU as much as its heatsink. The gray stuff on the metal chip cover is "thermal paste", a product which helps conduct heat from the chip real estate to its (not shown) heatsink.CPU chip in metal packageHeatsink has actually been removedBottom of package .. many type of relations (bit wires)cpu chip packageFlipping the CPU over shows the bit gold pads on the bottom of the CPU. Each pad is linked by a very fine wire to a spot on the silicon chip.Here is a snapshot of one more chip, however with the peak packaging removed. You check out the pinky-fingernail silicon chip at the facility with the tiny transistor details etched onto it. At the chip edge, check out the very fine wires connecting parts of the chip to outside pads (CC licensed attribution sharealke 3. wikipedia user Zephyris)Now looking from the side, the heatsink and the RAM memory card have the right to be seen more plainly, sticking up from the motherboard.RAM memory cardPlugs in to motherboard512 MB card (4 chips)RAM is constructed through a couple of chips packaged together onto a tiny card well-known as a DIMM that plugs into the motherboard (dual inline memory module). Here we view the RAM DIMM rerelocated from its motherboard socket. This is a 512MB DIMM developed through 4 chips. A few years previously, this DIMM could have actually required 8 chips in order to store 512MB .. Moore"s regulation in action.

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This is a tough drive that connects to the motherboard via the visible typical SATA connector. This is a 160GB, "3.5 inch" drive referring to the diameter of the spinning disk inside; the totality drive is about the size of small paperback book. This is a traditional disk size to usage inside a desktop computer computer. Laptop computer systems use 2.5 inch drives, which are a bit smaller sized.160 GB hard drive (persistent storage)i.e. persistentConnects to motherboard via standard SATA cableThis is a USB flash drive that, like a difficult drive, offers persistent byte storage. This is also well-known as a "thumb drive" or "USB key". It is essentially a USB jack associated to a flash storage chip through some assistance electronics:Flash drive (the various other type of persistent storage)i.e. persistentContains a flash chip, solid stateSD Card, equivalent ideaHere it is taken apart, reflecting the flash chip that actually stores the bytes. This chip deserve to save about 1 billion bits
.. just how many bytes is that? (A: 8 bits per byte, so that"s about 125 MB)Here is a "SD Card" which gives storage in a video camera. It"s extremely comparable to the USB flash drive, simply a various form.

Microcontroller - Cheap Computer Chip

MicrocontrollerComplete computer system on one chipSmall CPU, RAM, storage (Moore"s law)Chip can expense under $1Car, microwave, thermostat

Arduino Computer

This is an "arduino" board, microcontroller chip (CPU, RAM, storage all in one)--www.arduino.ccAs low as $10Open source, complimentary, not Windows only, tinkeringArt project -- switches, sensors, lightsarduino microcontroller board