archivesfergusonGay LiberationgentrificationGerber/Harthistoric memoryIan LekusJohn D'EmiliojournalismmediaOralHistoryPrideQueerhistoryRadio Free QtopiaResearchSex MattersStonewallStonewall Rebellion

The Female Academic’s World of Love and also Ritual: Women’s History and Radical Feminism

BY Claire Potter ON June 4, 2015

This write-up is an edited variation of a talk I provided at the Annual Meeting of the Organization of Amerideserve to Historians, April 17 2015, St. Louis, MO. The panel honored the 40th anniversary of Carroll Smith-Rosenberg’s “The Female World of Love and also Ritual: Relations Between Women in Nineteenth Century America,” Signs vol 1, no. 1 (Autumn, 1975). Organized by Marc Stein, the panelists had Farah Griffin, Mary Frances Berry, Suzanna Wchanges and Smith-Rosenberg herself.

You are watching: The female world of love and ritual

I first encountered Carroll Smith-Rosenberg’s “The Female World of Love and Ritual” in 1978. I was twenty and a junior at Yale. My teaching assistant in a course on the history of the American West had passed it on to me, saying that I create a paper making use of diaries that women had composed while traveling to The golden state on the Oregon Trail.

I was an English major and also had never before remained in an archive. When the archivist at the Beineke Library lugged me these papers, part of the massive Coe Western History collection, she told me that I was the initially perchild to have asked for them, a case which is almost unimaginable in women’s history now. That afternoon, I proficient for the first time a sensation that retransforms via the very same intensity every time I begin work in a new collection: the thrill of analysis various other people’s private thoughts.

I recently re-review “The Female World of Love and also Ritual,” initially in a .pdf, and then, browsing with my very own archives, a copy I had actually marked up as a young lesbian feminist in 1978. In addition to its path-breaking argument, the post maps, extremely plainly, what you need to perform to write good background. First, you must clearly state your epistemological stance. “I would like to indicate an alternative technique to female friendships,” I had bracketed these words in pencil and put two exclamation points in the margin, “one which would view them within a cultural and social setting rather than from an solely individual psychosocial perspective.”

Then you need to characterize your information, and also say why you have actually liked it: ideally, your archive would certainly be controllable, however heterogeneous enough to develop a generalizable conclusion. Writing against professional expertise created by men around women, Smith-Rosenberg proposed an intervention that was acquainted to me from my radical feminist analysis group: in this post, womales would speak for themselves, teaching us something entirely new about the nineteenth century, and also maybe about ourselves. Letters and diaries “which were never before intfinished to be publimelted,” I underscored this with 2 lines, “permits the historian to discover a very private civilization of emotional realities main both to women’s lives and to the middle course household in nineteenth century America.”<1>

Carroll Smith-Rosenberg made the job of women’s history legible by weaving feminist insights right into a popular humanities practice. The write-up additionally spoke to me, as it did to many type of women, bereason I was coming out as a lesbian in a university wbelow, except for my radical feminist friends, I was completely invisible as a sexual perkid and as a feminist, except to a little group of womales that were struggling to understand our relationships through each other, and also to feminist expertise production, in the context of a male school. Suddenly, after analysis the short article, I interpreted that the quasi-subterranean, erotic, frequently unfulfilled intensity of our intellectual and social relationships as young feminists was not superior, nor was it a sexual detour in require of correction. Our arising identities were historical, in the the majority of precise feeling of the word: “The question of female friendships is peculiarly elusive,” I underlined on page three of the article; “We know so little bit, or possibly have forobtained so a lot.”<2>

I cannot define to you what a relief it wregarding have the ability to reconfigure my fraught intellectual present in relation to a known previous. “Without a doubt Molly and Helena were lovers,” I circled, via more exclamation points; “emotionally if not physically.”<3> Of even more importance in the lengthy term, however, was that “The Female World of Love and also Ritual” described to me in simple English, as no one ever had, exactly how good history was created. It caused me to “see” womales in history, women who were already there.

This requires focus because I had actually adopted the task of this essay on the Amerideserve to West in the first location bereason I had partly grvery own up tright here. I had been elevated on yearly celebrations of Manifest Destiny, which erased human being of color yet featured white woguys rather prominently: Pioneer Days parades, monuments to missionaries wiped out by indigenous people, or memorials to migrants that took the wrong hill pass, got stuck in the snow and, sadly, had actually to eat each other. As I invested one afternoon in the archives, then an additional, and one more, I realized that the womales on the Oregon Trail were, as Smith-Rosenberg composed, “a fantastic example of the form of historic sensations which many historians understand somepoint around, which few have believed a lot around, and which practically no one has created around.”<4> This is about as elegant a statement of the women’s background project, as it was conceived within 1970s radical feminism, that you will ever uncover.

I was, of course, a tiny fish in the feminist sea; the intellectual affect of this write-up, even when misreview or over-understood, was currently enormous. My work-related in the archives of radical feminists has actually revealed that virtually eexceptionally activist kept up with the job-related of this first generation of women’s historians. I discovered an annotated copy of Claudia Koonz’s dissertation in the Kate Millett documents. I have actually found duplicates of “The Female World of Love and Ritual” in five separate radical feminist collections, as well as various other articles publiburned in Signs and Feminist Studies. Smith-Rosenberg’s insights were crucial to Adrienne Rich’s 1980 essay, “Compulsory Heterosexuality and Lesbian Existence.” As importantly, as soon as feminist scholarship began to move definitively ameans from a motion context and also women’s history ended up being a multi-generational project, this article traveled in a way that few have. In a autumn 2000, issue of The Journal of Women’s History, Leila Rupp spoke to its significance as “definitely the many cited post on women’s relationships.” She was guessing, of course: Google scholar did not launch in beta for one more 4 years. But as of last week, this useful online tool lists 1,670 citations. Remarkably, for an article publimelted forty years earlier, 49 of these are in in short articles published in the last year.<5>

“The Female World of Love and Ritual” underlined the central commitment of women’s background to a feminist transdevelopment of the technique. “Is it not the historian’s initially job,” Smith-Rosenberg asked, “to check out the social framework and the civilization see which made intense and periodically sensual female love both a possible and an acceptable emotional option?”<6> The answer was yes. Those initially fifteen years of citations disclose an all-star cast of historians or, as we graduate students called them in the 1980s, The Big Girls: Mary Ryan, Linda Kerber, Estelle Freedmale, Blanche Wiesen Chef, Leila Rupp, Nancy Cott, and also Ellen DuBois. Chef, Freedman, Rupp and also anthropologist Esther Newton, like Adrienne Rich, took up Smith-Rosenberg’s invitation to compose the background of lesbians also. As Molly McGarry has composed, “prior to the history of sexuality was totally comprised as a area of research, Smith-Rosenberg available a deceptively basic but stunningly abundant understanding right into very same sex relationships.” Its disagreements around white, middle-course woguys had actually even remained effective for McGarry’s very own twenty-initially students “throughout borders of race and also course, and also time.”<7>

It is fascinating to me that this article, born in a radical feminist minute in which a good many kind of womales were contemplating sexual, political and also social independence from males, has actually remained appropriate in a means that the lesbian feminist politics that it arised from have actually not. But I would prefer to note that, essential as “The Female World of Love and also Ritual” was to the appearance of LGBT background, that was not its only work. In fact, as radical feminism began to founder, it was used against that task: I would certainly argue that Adrienne Rich, in attempting to make a transhistorical argument about the repression of lesbian relationships, undervalues Smith-Rosenberg’s the majority of essential claims around space: that womales not only sculpted their relationships out of spaces constructed by patriarchal regulation, however were meant to preserve them as distinct homosocial worlds. Similarly, in 1996, sociologist Mary Jo Deegan misconstrued the nuances of Smith-Rosenberg’s central clintends as soon as she said that the women linked via the increase of the settlement movement and also the birth of sociology at the College of Chicback in the Progressive Period were not erotic partners, but only loving friends.<8>

So while its definition to women’s history, to LGBT history, and also to the appearance of queer and gender theory within background has actually been vast, in conclusion, I desire to make another claim around “The Female World of Love and Ritual” and the political work-related it did to carry the insights of radical feminism right into the historic profession. To paraexpression Deborah Gray White’s necessary testimonial of sources in African-Amerideserve to women’s history in 1987, the creation of interest in historic subjects spurs the creation of archives; conversely, the assertion that there are no archives justifies a lack of interest in marginalized, or deliberately forgotten topics.<9>

Prior to 1975, the work of feminist background – not incommonly done in a consciousness-elevating context and enacted in the first women’s researches courses, had been to uncover and cuprice a lost women’s past and also read it through a feminist current. Much of this job-related included reinterpreting the central myths of women’s existence: witches, the Madonna-whore or Mammy-Jezebel complicated, spiritual or racial ideas that stigmatized woguys, or the structural theories of Marx and Freud. Productive as these inquiries were, they were frequently not evidenced-based, presentist, and speculative. They rejected “men’s knowledge” with a “women’s knowledge” that was regarded as true bereason, through their consciousness raising, womales felt that it was.

In that context, “The Female World of Love and also Ritual” was a sort of manifesto, and also a theme for exactly how feminists might literally make background. Smith-Rosenberg signaled that feminist scholarship had actually matured enough to endeavor external its interdisciplinary setting and make a claim on the disciplines themselves. It made a solid discussion that women’s background would certainly not simply emerge from upending patriarchal ideology and also false consciousness, however from feminist archival labor, applied concept, and also historiographical method. Finally, with its rich citations to materials that had actually lain unsupplied in manuscript collections, “The Female World of Love and also Ritual” threw dvery own a major challenge to those that sassist that women’s background lacked the archival basis to be a area at all.

The success of that difficulty is why many kind of of us carry out this work-related this day.


<1> Carroll Smith-Rosenberg, “The Female World of Love and also Ritual: Relations Between Women in Nineteenth Century America,” Signs vol 1, no. 1 (Autumn, 1975), 2.

<2> Smith-Rosenberg, “The Female World of Love and also Ritual,” 3.

<3> Smith-Rosenberg, “The Female World of Love and Ritual,” 7.

<4> Smith-Rosenberg, “The Female World of Love and also Ritual,” 1.

<5> Lila Rupp, “Women’s History in the New Millennium: Carroll Smith-Rosenberg’s ‘The Female World of Love and Ritual’ after Twenty-Five Years,” The Journal of Women’s History vol. 12 no. 3 (Autumn), 8.

<6> Smith-Rosenberg, “The Female World of Love and Ritual,” 8.

<7> Molly McGarry, “Female Worlds,” The Journal of Women’s History vol. 12 no. 3 (Autumn), 10.

<8> Mary Jo Deegan, “`Dear Love, Dear Love:’ Feminist Pragmatism and also the Chicago Female World of Love and also Ritual,” Gender and Society, Vol. 10, No. 5 (Oct., 1996), pp. 590-607.

See more: Get Mille Lacs Band Of Ojibwe Per Capita, Chippewa Tribe Fund

<9> Deborah Gray White, Mining the Forgotten: Manuscript Sources for Black Women’s History,” The Journal of Amerihave the right to History vol. 74 no. 1 (June 1987), 237.