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The Technical Details: Chemistry
Composition of an Atom
Atoms, which are the fundamental, basic unit of all matter, deserve to differ considerably from one an additional. Although atoms are too tiny to see without using high-powered microscopes, they are created of even smaller particles: proloads, neutrons, and electrons.
Electrons, which are exceptionally light, negatively-charged pposts, orbit approximately a central mass–the nucleus of an atom. Atoms may obtain or shed electrons, which change the charge of the atom (producing ions). However, the atom continues to be the very same element whether it has actually a positive, negative, or neutral charge.
The tiny, dense nucleus (or center) of the atom consists of the various other components–the prolots and also neutrons. Prolots are positively charged pwrite-ups, and also the number of protons is always fixed for a specific aspect. In various other words, the variety of protons is what gives each facet its unique, individual identity. For example, a carbon atom has actually six protons, but an atom via just five proloads is boron while an atom via seven proloads is the element nitrogen.
Neutrons are neutral - they have no charge. Isotopes are atoms of the exact same aspect that have a various number of neutrons. Although isotopes of the exact same aspect are twins once it concerns retask, the different variety of neutrons suggests that they have a various mass. Certain isotopes are more plentiful in some materials than others since some physical and chemical processes “prefer” one isotope over another. These differences in isotopic abundance are supplied as “labels” to identify the various resources of CO2 discovered in an atmospheric CO2 sample. soimg.org atmospheric scientists use these isotopic labels to identify what percent of that carbon was obtained from fossil fuels, the terrestrial biospbelow, or from the sea.
Isotopes of Carbon
Carbon isotopes come in three forms. By much the many prevalent isotope of carbon is carbon-12 (12C), which has six neutrons in addition to its 6 prolots. The following heaviest carbon isotope, carbon-13 (13C), has actually seven neutrons. Both 12C and 13C are called stable isotopes given that they do not decay right into various other develops or aspects over time. The rare carbon-14 (14C) isotope has eight neutrons in its nucleus. Unfavor 12C and also 13C, this isotope is unsecure, or radioenergetic. Over time, a 14C atom will certainly decay right into a steady product.
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The substantial majority of all carbon uncovered on Planet is 12C. Althe majority of 99% of all carbon on Planet is of this form. While only about 1% of all carbon on Planet is of the 13C isotopic create, 14C is still much rarer. Only one out of eexceptionally trillion carbon atoms is 14C.
To acquire an principle of exactly how few 14C atoms tright here are compared to 12C, let"s compare one to one trillion. A trillion is a million millions. If you lined up a trillion one dollar bills, it would stretch practically from the Planet to the sun!