Table 5.1 mirrors the 4 major categories of market structures and also their features.

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Table 5.1 Market Structure Characteristics

Free enattempt and exit

Barriers to entry

No entry

Perfect competition is on one end of the industry structure spectrum, with many firms. Words, “numerous” has special interpretation in this context. In a perfectly competitive sector, each firm is so tiny family member to the market that it cannot affect the price of the good. Each perfectly competitive firm is a price taker. Because of this, plenty of firms means that each firm is so tiny that it is a price taker.

Monopoly is the other excessive of the sector structure spectrum, through a single firm. Monopolies have actually monopoly power, or the capability to change the price of the excellent. Monopoly power is also dubbed market power, and is measured by the Lerner Index.

This chapter specifies and defines 2 intermediary market structures: monopolistic competition and oligopoly.

Monopolistic Competition = A industry framework identified by a identified product and also freedom of entry and also departure.

Monopolistically Competitive firms have one characteristic that is like a syndicate (a distinguished product provides sector power), and also one characteristic that is favor a competitive firm (liberty of entry and also exit). This develop of industry structure is prevalent in market-based economic climates, and a expedition to the grocery keep reveals big numbers of identified products: toothpaste, laundry soap, breakrapid cereal, and also so on.

Next off, we define the industry structure oligopoly.

Oligopoly = A industry structure identified by barriers to entry and also a couple of firms.

Oligopoly is a fascinating industry framework as a result of interactivity and interdependency in between oligopolistic firms. What one firm does affects the other firms in the oligopoly.

Since monopolistic competition and also oligopoly are intermediary industry structures, the next section will certainly evaluation the properties and also qualities of perfect competition and also monopoly. These attributes will certainly administer the specifying characteristics of monopolistic competition and also oligopoly.

5.1.2 Resee of Perfect Competition

The perfectly competitive industry has 4 characteristics:

(1) Homogenous product,

(2) Large number of buyers and sellers (numerous firms),

(3) Freedom of enattempt and leave, and

(4) Perfect information.

The possibility of entry and departure of firms occurs in the long run, given that the number of firms is resolved in the brief run.

An equilibrium is characterized as a suggest wright here tbelow is no tendency to readjust. The principle of equilibrium can be extended to include the brief run and lengthy run.

Quick Run Equilibrium = A suggest from which tbelow is no tendency to adjust (a stable state), and a addressed number of firms.

Long Run Equilibrium = A suggest from which tbelow is no tendency to readjust (a stable state), and also enattempt and departure of firms.

In the short run, the variety of firms is solved, whereas in the long run, enattempt and also exit of firms is possible, based on profit conditions. We will certainly compare the brief and also long run for a competitive firm in Figure 5.1. The 2 panels in Figure 5.1 are for the firm (left) and also market (right), via vastly various devices. This is emphasized by using “q” for the firm’s output level, and “Q” for the sector output level. The graph mirrors both brief run and lengthy run equilibria for a perfectly competitive firm and also sector. In brief run equilibrium, the firms encounters a high price (PSR), produces amount QSR at PSR = MC, and also earns positive earnings πSR.


Figure 5.1 Brief Run and Long Run Equilibria for a Perfectly Competitive Firm

Confident earnings in the brief run (πSR > 0) cause entry of other firms, as tbelow are no obstacles to entry in a competitive industry. The enattempt of new firms shifts the supply curve in the sector graph from supply SSR to supply SLR. Enattempt will certainly take place until profits are pushed to zero, and also lengthy run equilibrium is reached at Q*LR. In the lengthy run, economic earnings are equal to zero, so tbelow is no motivation for entry or exit. Each firm is earning exactly what it is worth, the chance prices of all resources. In long run equilibrium, profits are zero (πLR = 0), and also price equals the minimum average price suggest (P = min AC = MC). Marginal prices equal average costs at the minimum average expense suggest. At the long run price, supply equates to demand also at price PLR.

5.1.3 Review of Monopoly

The qualities of monopoly include: (1) one firm, (2) one product, and (3) no entry (Table 5.1). The monopoly solution is presented in Figure 5.2.


Figure 5.2 Monopoly Profit Maximization

Note that long-run revenues have the right to exist for a syndicate, given that obstacles to entry halt any potential entrants from joining the market. In the next section, we will explore industry structures that lie in between the two extremes of perfect competition and also monopoly.

5.2 Monopolistic Competition

Monopolistic competition is a market framework identified by complimentary entry and also departure, favor competition, and also differentiated commodities, choose monopoly. Differentiated products administer each firm through some market power. Advertising and also marketing of each individual product carry out uniqueness that reasons the demand curve of each good to be downward sloping. Free enattempt indicates that each firm competes with various other firms and profits are equal to zero on long run equilibrium. If a monopolistically competitive firm is earning positive economic profits, entry will happen till financial profits are equal to zero.

5.2.1 Monopolistic Competition in the Quick and also Long Runs

The demand curve of a monopolistically competitive firm is downward sloping, indicating that the firm has actually a degree of sector power. Market power derives from product differentiation, given that each firm produces a different product. Each great has many kind of close substitutes, so sector power is limited: if the price is enhanced as well a lot, consumers will certainly shift to competitors’ commodities.


Figure 5.3 Monopolistic Competition in the Short Run and also Long Run

Short and lengthy run equilibria for the monopolistically competitive firm are presented in Figure 5.3. The demand curve encountering the firm is downward sloping, but fairly elastic because of the availcapability of close substitutes. The short run equilibrium appears in the left hand also panel, and also is almost similar to the monopoly graph. The just distinction is that for a monopolistically competitive firm, the demand is fairly elastic, or level. Otherwise, the brief run profit-maximizing solution is the very same as a syndicate. The firm sets marginal revenue equal to marginal price, produces output level q*SR and also charges price PSR. The profit level is presented by the shaded rectangle π.

The long run equilibrium is shown in the ideal hand panel. Enattempt of various other firms occurs till profits are equal to zero; complete earnings are equal to complete prices. Hence, the demand curve is tangent to the average price curve at the optimal lengthy run quantity, q*LR. The long run profit-maximizing quantity is discovered wbelow marginal revenue equals marginal cost, which additionally occurs at q*LR.

5.2.2 Economic Efficiency and also Monopolistic Competition

Tbelow are 2 sources of ineffectiveness in monopolistic competition. First, dead weight loss (DWL) due to monopoly power: price is greater than marginal price (P > MC). 2nd, excess capacity: the equilibrium quantity is smaller than the lowest price amount at the minimum suggest on the average cost curve (q*LR minAC). These 2 sources of inefficiency have the right to be watched in Figure 5.4.


Figure 5.4 Comparikid of Efficiency for Competition and also Monopolistic Competition

First, tright here is dead weight loss (DWL) as a result of sector power: the price is better than marginal expense in long run equilibrium. In the best hand panel of Figure 5.4, the price at the long run equilibrium amount is PLR, and marginal price is lower: PLR > MC. This reasons dead weight loss to culture, given that the competitive equilibrium would certainly be at a larger quantity where P = MC. Total dead weight loss is the shaded location beneath the demand curve and also over the MC curve in figure 5.4.

The second source of inefficiency associated via monopolistic competition is excess capacity. This can additionally be checked out in the ideal hand panel of Figure 5.4, where the lengthy run equilibrium amount is lower than the amount where average prices are lowest (qminAC). As such, the firm could produce at a reduced cost by increasing output to the level wbelow average costs are decreased.

Given these 2 inefficiencies linked via monopolistic competition, some individuals and also teams have referred to as for government intervention. Regulation could be supplied to minimize or get rid of the inefficiencies by rerelocating product differentiation. This would certainly lead to a single product rather of a huge variety of close substitutes.

Regulation is probably not a great solution to the inefficiencies of monopolistic competition, for 2 reasons. First, the sector power of a typical firm in a lot of monopolistically competitive sectors is little. Each monopolistically competitive market has many kind of firms that create sufficiently substitutable commodities to carry out enough competition to result in reasonably low levels of market power. If the firms have actually little levels of market power, then the deadweight loss and excess capacity inefficiencies are likely to be small.

Second, the advantage provided by monopolistic competition is product diversity. The acquire from product diversity can be big, as consumers are willing to pay for various features and attributes. Therefore, the get from product diversity is likely to outweigh the expenses of inefficiency. Evidence for this case have the right to be seen in market-based economic climates, wright here tbelow is a substantial amount of product diversity.

The following chapter will present and also discuss oligopoly: strategic interactions in between firms!

5.3 Oligopoly Models

An oligopoly is characterized as a industry structure via few firms and obstacles to entry.

Oligopoly = A sector structure through few firms and obstacles to entry.

Tbelow is regularly a high level of competition between firms, as each firm renders decisions on prices, amounts, and also heralding to maximize revenues. Since tright here are a small number of firms in an oligopoly, each firm’s profit level relies not just on the firm’s own decisions, yet likewise on the decisions of the various other firms in the oligopolistic industry.

5.3.1 Strategic Interactions

Each firm need to take into consideration both: (1) other firms’ reactions to a firm’s own decisions, and also (2) the own firm’s reactions to the other firms’ decisions. Therefore, there is a constant interplay in between decisions and reactions to those decisions by all firms in the sector. Each oligopolist have to take right into account these strategic interactions as soon as making decisions. Due to the fact that all firms in an oligopoly have actually outcomes that depfinish on the other firms, these strategic interactions are the foundation of the study and knowledge of oligopoly.

For example, each car firm’s sector share depends on the prices and quantities of every one of the various other firms in the sector. If Ford lowers prices relative to various other car manufacturers, it will rise its sector share at the price of the other auto carriers.

When making decisions that consider the possible reactions of various other firms, firm supervisors typically assume that the supervisors of contending firms are rational and intelligent. These strategic interactions form the examine of game concept, the topic of Chapter 6 below. John Nash (1928-2015), an Amerideserve to mathematician, was a pioneer in game theory. Economists and mathematicians usage the principle of a Nash Equilibrium (NE) to describe a prevalent outcome in game theory that is commonly offered in the study of oligopoly.

Nash Equilibrium = An outcome wbelow there is no tendency to adjust based on each individual picking a strategy provided the strategy of rivals.

In the research of oligopoly, the Nash Equilibrium assumes that each firm provides rational profit-maximizing decisions while holding the actions of rival firms consistent. This presumption is made to simplify oligopoly models, offered the potential for massive intricacy of strategic interactions between firms. As an aside, this presumption is among the interesting themes of the activity photo, “A Beautiful Mind,” starring Russell Crowe as John Nash. The concept of Nash Equilibrium is likewise the structure of the models of oligopoly presented in the next three sections: the Cournot, Bertrand also, and Stackelberg models of oligopoly.

5.3.2 Cournot Model

Augustin Cournot (1801-1877), a French mathematician, arisen the initially version of oligopoly explored below. The Cournot model is a version of oligopoly in which firms create a homogeneous good, assuming that the competitor’s output is addressed as soon as deciding just how much to create.

A numerical instance of the Cournot model adheres to, where it is assumed that tbelow are two the same firms (a duopoly), via output provided by Qi (i=1,2). Therefore, full industry output is equal to: Q = Q1 + Q2. Market demand also is a function of price and also offered by Qd = Qd(P), therefore the inverse demand also feature is P = P(Qd). Keep in mind that the price counts on the sector output Q, which is the amount of both individual firm’s outputs. In this means, each firm’s output has actually an affect on the price and also earnings of both firms. This is the basis for strategic interactivity in the Cournot model: if one firm increases output, it lowers the price encountering both firms. The inverse demand function and price function are given in Equation 5.1.

(5.1) P = 40 – QC(Qi) = 7Qi i = 1,2

Each firm chooses the optimal, profit-maximizing output level provided the other firm’s output. This will cause a Nash Equilibrium, because each firm is holding the habits of the rival constant. Firm One maximizes revenues as follows.

max π1 = TR1 – TC1

max π1 = P(Q)Q1 – C(Q1)

max π1 = <40 – Q>Q1 – 7Q1

max π1 = <40 – Q1 – Q2>Q1 – 7Q1

max π1 = 40Q1 – Q12 – Q2Q1 – 7Q1

∂π1/∂Q1= 40 – 2Q1 – Q2 – 7 = 0

2Q1 = 33 – Q2

Q1* = 16.5 – 0.5Q2

This equation is dubbed the “Reaction Function” of Firm One. This is as far as the mathematical solution can be simplified, and also represents the Cournot solution for Firm One. It is a reactivity attribute considering that it explains Firm One’s reactivity provided the output level of Firm Two. This equation represents the strategic interactions between the 2 firms, as transforms in Firm Two’s output level will cause changes in Firm One’s response. Firm One’s optimal output level relies on Firm Two’s behavior and also decision making. Oligopolists are interconnected in both habits and also outcomes.

The 2 firms are assumed to be identical in this duopoly. Thus, Firm Two’s reaction function will be symmetrical to the Firm One’s reactivity attribute (examine this by establishing up and also fixing the profit-maximization equation for Firm Two):

Q2* = 16.5 – 0.5Q1

The 2 reaction attributes have the right to be used to resolve for the Cournot-Nash Equilibrium. Tright here are 2 equations and also 2 unknowns (Q1 and Q2), so a numerical solution is uncovered through substitution of one equation right into the various other.

Q1* = 16.5 – 0.5(16.5 – 0.5Q1)

Q1* = 16.5 – 8.25 + 0.25Q1

Q1* = 8.25 + 0.25Q1

0.75Q1* = 8.25

Q1* = 11

Due to symmeattempt from the presumption of identical firms:

Qi = 11 i = 1,2Q = 22units P = 18 USD/unit

Profits for each firm are:

πi = P(Q)Qi – C(Qi) = 18(11) – 7(11) = (18 – 7)11 = 11(11) = 121 USD

This is the Cournot-Nash solution for oligopoly, discovered by each firm assuming that the other firm holds its output level constant. The Cournot version can be easily extfinished to even more than 2 firms, but the math does acquire increasingly facility as even more firms are included. Economists utilize the Cournot design bereason is based upon intuitive and also realistic assumptions, and also the Cournot solution is intermediary in between the outcomes of the 2 excessive industry structures of perfect competition and monopoly.

This can be seen by addressing the numerical instance for competition, Cournot, and also monopoly models, and also comparing the remedies for each industry structure.

In a competitive market, free entry results in price equal to marginal expense (P = MC). In the situation of the numerical example, COMPUTER = 7. When this competitive price is substituted right into the inverse demand equation, 7 = 40 – Q, or Qc = 33. Profits are found by solving (P – MC)Q, or πc = (7 – 7)Q = 0. The competitive solution is offered in Equation (5.2).

(5.2) Pc = 7 USD/unitQc = 33 unitsπc = 0 USD

The monopoly solution is found by maximizing profits as a single firm.

max πm = TRm – TCm

max πm = P(Qm)Qm – C(Qm)

max πm = <40 – Qm>Qm – 7Qm

max πm = 40Qm – Qm2 – 7Qm

∂πm/∂Qm= 40 – 2Qm – 7 = 0

2Qm = 33

Qm* = 16.5

Pm = 40 – 16.5 = 23.5

πm = (Pm – MCm)Qm = (23.5 – 7)16.5 = 16.5(16.5) = 272.25 USD

The monopoly solution is offered in Equation (5.3).

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(5.3) Pm = 23.5 USD/unit Qm = 16.5 unitsπm = 272.5 USD

The competitive, Cournot, and also monopoly solutions deserve to be compared on the exact same graph for the numerical instance (Figure 5.5).