Momentum is a corner stone principle in Physics. It is a ** conoffered quantity**. Thatis, within a closed device of interacting objects, the

**of that mechanism**

*total momentum***value.**

*does not change*This permits you to calculate and predict outcomes as soon as objects bounce into one another. Or by discovering the outcome of a collision, you can number out what was the initial state of the system.

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The form of momentum which we will be extending here is dubbed ** straight momentum**. In classical physics this is the momentum of a mass (an object) as it moves alengthy a right line.

Momentum is mass times velocity.

When an item is moving, it has a non-zero momentum. If an object is standing still, thenits momentum is zero.To calculate the momentum of a relocating object multiply the ** mass** of the object

**its**

*times***. The symbol for momentum is a little**

*velocity***p**.

A sample momentum calculation.

In the over image, let"s say that themass is 2.0 kg and that the velocity is 4.0m/s. That is:

m = 2.0 kg

**v **= 4.0 m/s

To calculate the momentum for this object we will multiply the mass times the velocity:

**p**= m**v**

**p**= (2.0 kg)(4.0 m/s)

**p**= 8.0 kg-m/s

So, the momentum of the object is calculated to be 8.0 kg-m/s.

Note theunit for momentum. It is ** "kg-m/s"**. This is pronounced

**. The dash is not pronounced.**

*"kilogram meter per second"*Momentum is a vector.

Momentum is a**. That implies that momentum is a amount that has actually a**

*vector***(or size) and also a**

*magnitude***.**

*direction*The above difficulty is a ** one dimensional problem**, so the object is relocating alengthy a

**. In situations favor this the momentum is typically stated to be positive to the best, and negative to the left.**

*right line*So, in the over trouble you would say that the momentum is ** "positive 8.0 kg-m/s"**, or

**. Normally, though, in basic situations prefer this we just say that the momentum is**

*"8.0 kg-m/s to the right"***through thepositive sign understood.**

*"8.0 kg-m/s"*If the object was moving towards the left via a velocity of -4.0 m/s, then the momentum would certainly be -8.0 kg-m/s, and you would say ** "negative 8.0 kg-m/s"**.

Momentum troubles deserve to end up being more complex, however. You deserve to calculate momentum in 2 and 3 dimensions. Under these conditions, say in a 2 dimensional trouble, you would state a momentum using language such as ** "3.0 kg-m/s in a direction of 50 levels North of East"**.

At initially, though, our momentum problems will certainly be in just one dimension. We willimagine objects traveling in a directly line moving toward the ideal (positive) or left (negative).

Momentum is not velocity.

Sometimes the idea of ** momentum** is puzzled with the principle of

**. Donot perform this. Momentum is concerned velocity. In fact, they both have the same**

*velocity***. That is, if an object has a velocity that is aimed toward the best, then its momentum will certainly also be directed to the ideal. However, momentum is comprised of both mass and also velocity. You must take the mass and also multiply it by the velocity to obtain the momentum.**

*direction*Momentum is directly proportional to velocity.

If the**is retained**

*mass***, then the**

*constant***of an objectis**

*momentum***to its**

*straight proportional***. In the instance at the left, the mass is preserved consistent at a value of 2.0kg.**

*velocity*The velocity alters from 0 m/s to 10 m/s while the momentum changes from 0 kg-m/s to 20 kg-m/s. This creates a straight line graph once momentum is plotted as a duty of velocity. (The symbol for momentum as a role of velocity would certainly be p(v).) The straight line graph demonstprices a straight propercent in between momentum and also velocity.

So if you were to double the velocity of a things, then the momentum of that object would certainly additionally double. And, if you were to adjust the velocity of a things by a element of 1/4, then themomentum of that object would certainly also readjust by a variable of 1/4.Momentum is straight proportional to mass.

If the**is maintained**

*velocity***, then the**

*constant***of an item is**

*momentum***to its**

*directly proportional***. In the example at the left, the velocity is preserved constant at a value of 3.0 m/s.**

*mass*The mass alters from 0kg to 10 kg while the momentum transforms from 0 kg-m/s to 30 kg-m/s. This creates a straight line graph when momentumis plotted as a role of mass. (The symbol for momentum as a duty of mass would be p(m).) The right linegraph demonstrates the straight propercent in between momentum and also mass.

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For instance, if you were to triple the mass of a things, then the momentum of that object would additionally triple. And, if you were to change the mass of an item by a aspect of 1/2, then the momentumof that object would additionally change by a variable of 1/2.