Pope Leo X, born Giovanni di Lorenzo de" Medici (December 11, 1475 - December 1, 1521) was Pope from 1513 to his fatality. He is known mainly for his papal bull versus Martin Luther and also subsequent faientice to stem the Protestant Redevelopment, which began throughout his reign when Martin Luther (1483–1546) published the 95 Theses and also nailed them to the door of the Castle Church in Wittenberg. He was the second boy of Lorenzo de" Medici, the a lot of famous leader of the Florentine Republic, and Clarice Orsini. His cousin, Giulio di Giuliano de" Medici, would end up being a pope, Pope Clement VII (1523–34). He was a member of the powerful Medici household.

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1 Biography2 Redevelopment and also last years
The remark "It has offered us well, this myth of Christ" is frequently attributed to him, despite the fact that it initially shows up in John Bale"s fiercely antipapal treatise, The Pageant of the Popes (1575).<1> Leo"s refusal to concede the truth of Luther"s objections, and to promote important reform, caused the birth of Protestant Christianity, considering that Luther did not set out to uncovered a brand-new church yet to adjust the existing one. It would certainly take more diplomatic and spiritually mature successors to the thramong St. Peter to undertake the Counter-Reformation in which many kind of recreates supported by Luther were brought out. Leo"s extravagant expenditure left the papacy in debt.

Biography

Early career

Giovanni de" Medici was born in Florence, Italy.

He was destined from his birth for the church, he obtained the toncertain at the age of six and was soon loaded through wealthy benefices and also preferments. His father dominated on Innocent VIII to name him cardinal-deacon of Santa Maria in Domnica in March 1489, although he was not allowed to wear the insignia or share in the deliberations of the college till 3 years later. At the same time he received a cautious education and learning at Lorenzo"s brilliant humanistic court under such men as Angelo Poliziano, Pico della Mirandola, Marsilio Ficino and Bernarexecute Dovizio Bibbiena. From 1489 to 1491, he stupassed away theology and also canon law at Pisa under Filippo Decio and Bartolomeo Sozzini.

On March 23, 1492, he was formally admitted into the spiritual college and also took up his residence at Rome, receiving a letter of advice from his father which ranks among the wisest of its sort. The death of Lorenzo on the following April 8, but, referred to as the seventeen year old cardinal to Florence. He participated in the conclave of 1492 which adhered to the fatality of Innocent VIII, and opposed the election of Cardinal Borgia. He made his residence via his elder brvarious other Piero at Florence throughout the agitation of Savonarola and also the invasion of Charles VIII of France, until the upincreasing of the Florentines and also the expulsion of the Medici in November 1494. While Piero discovered refuge at Venice and also Urbino, Cardinal Giovanni traveled in Germany type of, in the Netherlands and also in France.

In May 1500, he returned to Rome, wright here he was obtained via exterior cordiality by Alexander VI, and wright here he lived for numerous years immersed in art and literature. In 1503, he welcomed the accession of Julius II to the pontificate; the fatality of Piero de" Medici in the very same year made Giovanni head of his family. On October 1, 1511, he was appointed papal legate of Bologna and also the Romagna, and when the Florentine republic declared in favor of the schismatic Pisans Julius II sent out him against his indigenous city at the head of the papal army. This and also various other attempts to reacquire political regulate of Florence were frustrated, until a bloodless rdevelopment allowed the rerevolve of the Medici. Giovanni"s younger brvarious other Giuliano was placed at the head of the republic, however the cardinal actually managed the government.

Election to Papacy


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Julius II passed away in February 1513, and the conclave, after a stormy seven-day session, united on Cardinal de" Medici as the candiday of the younger cardinals. He was elected on March 9, but he was proasserted on March 11. He was ordained to the priesthood on March 15, consecrated bishop on 17, and enthroned with the name of Leo X on 19. There is no evidence of simony in the conclave, and Leo"s election was hailed through delight by at least some of the Romans on account of his reputation in Rome for liberality, kindliness and also love of tranquility. Following the example of many type of of his precursors, he promptly repudiated his election "capitulation" as an infringement on the divinely bestowed prerogatives of the Divine See.

Many kind of troubles challenged Leo X on his accession. These consisted of the need to preserve the papal occupations which he had inherited from Alexander VI and also Julius II; the minimization of foreign affect, whether French, Spanish or Gerguy, in Italy; the must put an finish to the Pisan schism and resolve the other troubles relating to the French invasion; the restoration of the French Church to Catholic unity, by abolishing the pragmatic sanction of Bourges, and bringing to a effective cshed the Lateran council convoked by his predecessor. He had also to confront the victorious advancement of the Turks and also the disagreeable wranglings of German humanists. Other difficulties associated via his family interests served to complicate the instance and ultimately to prevent the successful consummation of many type of, many kind of of his plans.

Role in Italian Wars

At the extremely time of Leo"s accession Louis XII of France, in alliance with Venice, was making a established initiative to reobtain the duchy of Milan, and the pope, after fruitmuch less endeavours to keep tranquility, joined the league of Mechlin on April 5, 1513, through the emperor Maximilian I, Ferdinand also I of Spain, and Henry VIII of England also. The French and also Venetians were at first successful, but were defeated in June at the Battle of Novara. The Venetians ongoing the struggle until October. On December 9, the fifth Lateran council, which had been reopened by Leo in April, ratified the peace through Louis XII and also officially registered the conclusion of the Pisan schism.

While the council was involved in planning a crusade and also in considering the recreate of the clergy, a new crisis developed in between the pope and also the new king of France, Francis I, an enthusiastic young prince, overcame by the ambition of recovering Milan and the Kingdom of Naples. Leo at when created a brand-new league with the emperor and the king of Spain, and to encertain English support made Thomas Wolsey a cardinal. Francis gone into Italy in August and also on September 14, won the battle of Marignano. The pope in October signed an agreement binding him to withattract his troops from Parma and also Piacenza, which had been formerly obtained at the expense of the duchy of Milan, on problem of French protection at Rome and Florence. The king of Spain composed to his ambassador at Rome "that His Holiness had actually hitherto played a double game and also that all his zeal to drive the French from Italy had actually been just a mask;" this reproach seemed to receive some confirmation once Leo X organized a secret conference via Francis at Bologna in December 1515. The ostensible topics under consideration were the establishment of tranquility in between France, Venice and also the Empire, via a check out to an expedition against the Turks, and also the ecclesiastical affairs of France. Precisely what was arranged is unrecognized. Throughout these 2 or 3 years of incessant political intrigue and warfare it was not to be meant that the Lateran council need to attain a lot. Its three main goals, the tranquility of Christendom, the crusade (against the Turks), and also the redevelop of the church, can be secured only by basic agreement among the powers, and either Leo or the council, or both, fairesulted in secure such agreement. Its a lot of vital achievements were the registration at its eleventh sitting (9 December 1516) of the abolition of the pragmatic sanction, which the popes given that Pius II had actually unanimously condemned, and also the confirmation of the concordat between Leo X and Francis I, which was destined to control the connections between the French Church and the Holy See till the Revolution. Leo closed the council on 16 March 1517. It had actually ended the Pisan schism, validated the censorship of publications introduced by Alexander VI and enforced tithes for a battle against the Turks. It elevated no voice versus the primacy of the pope.

War of Urbino

The year which marked the close of the Lateran council was also signalized by Leo"s battle against the duke of Urbino Francesco Maria I della Rovere. The pope was proud of his household and had practised nepotism from the outset. His cousin Giulio, who consequently ended up being pope as Clement VII, he had actually made the the majority of significant male in the curia, naming him archbishop of Florence, cardinal and vice-chancellor of the Divine See. Leo had actually intended his younger brvarious other Giuliano and also his nephew Lorenzo for brilliant secular careers. He had called them Romale patricians; the latter he had actually put in charge of Florence; the former, for whom he planned to carve out a kingdom in central Italy of Parma, Piacenza, Ferrara and also Urbino, he had actually taken through himself to Rome and married to Filiberta of Savoy. The death of Giuliano in March 1516, but, brought about the pope to move his ambitions to Lorenzo. At the exceptionally time (December 1516) that tranquility in between France, Spain, Venice and also the Empire appeared to offer some promise of a Christendom united versus the Turks, Leo was preparing an enterpclimb as unscrupulous as any of the equivalent exploits of Cesare Borgia. He derived 150,000 ducats towards the expenses of the exploration from Henry VIII of England, in rerotate for which he gotten in the imperial league of Spain and also England also versus France.

The battle lasted from February to September 1517, and ended with the expulsion of the duke and also the triumph of Lorenzo; however it revived the allegedly nefarious policy of Alexander VI, raised brigandage and anarchy in the Papal States, hindered the preparations for a crusade and also wrecked the papal finances. Francesco Guicciardini reckoned the price of the battle to Leo at the prodigious sum of 800,000 ducats. The brand-new duke of Urbino was the Lorenzo de" Medici to whom Machiavelli addressed The Prince. His marriage in March 1518 was arranged by the pope via Madeleine la Tour d"Auvergne, a royal princess of France, whose daughter was the Catherine de" Medici commemorated in French background.

The war of Urbino was additionally marked by a crisis in the connections between pope and also cardinals. The spiritual college had allegedly grown particularly worldly and also troublesome since the time of Sixtus IV, and also Leo took benefit of a plot of a number of of its members to poikid him, not only to inflict exemplary punishments by executing one and also imprisoning numerous others, but additionally to make a radical change in the college. On July 3, 1517, he publimelted the names of thirty-one new cardinals, a number virtually extraordinary in the background of the papacy. Amongst the nomicountries were notables such as Lorenzo Campeggio, Giambattista Pallavicini, Adrian of Utrecht (the future Pope Adrian VI), Thomas Cajetan, Cristoforo Numai and Egidio Canisio. The naming of seven members of prominent Roguy families, however, reversed the policy of his predecessor which had kept the political factions of the city out of the curia. Other promovements were for political or family considerations or to secure money for the war against Urbino. The pope was accsupplied of having actually exaggerated the conspiracy of the cardinals for objectives of financial get, however a lot of of such accusations appear to be unsubstantiated.

Leo, meanwhile, felt the need of staying the development of the warfavor Ottoguy sultan, Selim I, that was threatening western Europe, and made fancy plans for a crusade. A truce wregarding be proasserted throughout Christendom; the pope was to be the arbiter of disputes; the emperor and the king of France were to lead the army; England also, Spain and also Portugal were to furnish the fleet; and the merged pressures were to be directed against Constantinople. Papal diplomacy in the interests of tranquility failed, however; Cardinal Wolsey made England also, not the pope, the arbiter between France and also the Empire; and a lot of the money gathered for the crusade from tithes and indulgences was invested in various other ways. In 1519, Hungary concluded a 3 years" truce through Selim I, but the prospering sultan, Suleymale the Magnificent, renewed the war in June 1521 and also on August 28, caught the citadel of Belgrade. The pope was significantly alarmed, and although he was then connected in battle with France he sent about 30,000 ducats to the Hungarians. Leo treated the Uniate Greeks through good loyalty, and also by bull of May 18, 1521, forbade Latin clergy to celebprice mass in Greek churches and Latin bishops to ordain Greek clergy.

These provisions were later strengthened by Clement VII and Paul III and went much to settle the chronic problems between the Latins and also Uniate Greeks.

Redevelopment and last years

Leo was disturbed throughout his pontificate by alleged heresy and schisms, specifically the kulturkampf touched off by Martin Luther. Literally, this describes a social struggle, and describes the scope of the church"s affect within culture. Luther"s usage of the Gerguy language, also, tested the Church"s ability to act as gatekeeper of scripture, given that world that did not understand latin might currently read and interpret the Scriptures without the need of a priest as mediator.

Schism in between Reuchlin and also Pfefferkorn concerning the banning of Hebrew books

The conflict between the Hebraist Johann Reuchlin and also Johannes Pfefferkorn loved one to the Talmud and other Jewish books, as well as censorship of such books, was described the pope in September 1513. He subsequently referred it to the bishops of Spires and also Worms, who provided decision in March 1514 in favor of Reuchlin. After the appeal of the inquisitor-basic, Hochstraten, and also the appearance of the Epistolae obscurorum virorum, yet, Leo annulled the decision (June 1520) and also imposed silence on Reuchlin. In the end he allowed the Talmud to be printed.


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The Protestant Schism

Against the misconduct from some servants of the church, the Augustinian monk Martin Luther posted (October 31, 1517) his renowned ninety-five theses on the church door at Wittenberg, which successively escalated to a widespread revolt versus the church. Although Leo did not totally comprehfinish the prestige of the activity, he directed (February 3, 1518) the vicar-basic of the Augustinians to impose silence on the monks. On May 30, Luther sent out an explanation of his theses to the pope; on August 7, he was summoned to appear at Rome. An setup was effected, but, whereby that summons was canceled, and Luther checked out Augsburg in October 1518 to satisfy the papal legate, Cardinal Cajetan, that was attending the imperial diet convened by the emperor Maximilian to impose the tithes for the Turkish war and to elect a king of the Romans; but neither the debates of the educated cardinal, nor the dogmatic papal bull of November 9 requiring all Christians to believe in the pope"s power to approve indulgences, relocated Luther to retract. A year of fruitless negotiation adhered to, throughout which debate over the pamphlets of the reprevious collection all Germany on fire. A papal bull of June 15, 1520, which condemned forty-one propositions extracted from Luther"s teachings, was taken to Germany kind of by Eck in his capacity of apostolic nuncio, publimelted by him and the legateways Alexander and also Caracciolo, and melted by Luther on December 10, at Wittenberg. Leo then formally exconnected Luther by bull of the January 3, 1521; in a brief the Pope also directed the emperor to take energetic measures against heresy. On May 26, 1521, the emperor signed the edict of the diet of Worms, which placed Luther under the ban of the Empire; on 21 of the same month Henry VIII of England (who was later to break-up from Catholicism himself) sent out to Leo his book against Luther on the salso sacraments. The pope, after mindful consideration, conferred on the king of England also the title "Defender of the Faith" by bull of October 11, 1521. Neither the imperial edict nor the job-related of Henry VIII halted the Lutheran movement, and also Luther himself, safe in the solitude of the Wartburg, made it through Leo X.

It was under Leo X also that the Protestant activity arised in Scandinathrough. The pope had repetitively used the well-off north benefices to reward members of the Roguy curia, and also towards the cshed of the year 1516 he sent out the grasping and impolitic Arcimboldi as papal nuncio to Denmark to collect money for St Peter"s. King Christian II took benefit of the prospering dissatisfactivity on the component of the aboriginal clergy toward the papal federal government, and of Arcimboldi"s interference in the Swedish revolt, in order to expel the nuncio and summon (1520) Lutheran theologians to Copenhagen. Christian approved a setup whereby a formal state church should be establiburned in Dennote, all appeals to Rome need to be abolished, and the king and also diet should have final jurisdiction in ecclesiastical reasons. Leo sent out a brand-new nuncio to Copenhagen (1521) in the person of the Minorite Francesco de Potentia, that conveniently absolved the king and also got the well-off bishopric of Skara. The pope or his legate, yet, took no steps to remove absupplies or otherwise recreate the Scandinavian churches. (Some Scandinavian nations still have actually Protestant state churches.)

Italian politics


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That Leo did not execute more to examine the anti-papal rebellion in Germany kind of and Scandinavia is to be partially explained by the political complications of the time, and by his very own preoccupation with papal and Medicean national politics in Italy. The fatality of the emperor Maximilian, in 1519, had seriously impacted the situation. Leo vacillated between the effective candidays for the succession, enabling it to show up at initially that he favoured Francis I while really working for the election of some minor German prince. He ultimately accepted Charles V of Spain as inevitable; and also the election of Charles (28 June 1519) revealed Leo"s desertion of his French alliance, a step helped with by the death at about the exact same time of Lorenzo de" Medici and also his French wife.

Leo was currently anxious to unite Ferrara, Parma and Piacenza to the States of the Church. An attempt late in 1519 to seize Ferrara failed, and the pope known the require of foreign assist. In May 1521, a treaty of alliance was signed at Rome between him and the emperor. Milan and also Genoa were to be taken from France and also recovered to the Empire, and also Parma and Piacenza were to be given to the Church on the expulsion of the French. The cost of enlisting 10,000 Swiss was to be borne equally by pope and also emperor. Charles took Florence and also the Medici family members under his defense and promised to punish all enemies of the Catholic confidence. Leo agreed to invest Charles with Naples, to crvery own him emperor, and also to help in a battle versus Venice. It was provided that England also and also the Swiss could join the league. Henry VIII announced his adherence in August. Francis I had already started war through Charles in Navarre, and also in Italy, as well, the French made the first hostile activity (June 23, 1521). Leo at when announced that he would certainly excommunicate the king of France and also release his topics from their allegiance unmuch less Francis lhelp down his arms and also surrendered Parma and Piacenza. The pope lived to hear the joyful news of the capture of Milan from the French and of the occupation by papal troops of the long-coveted districts (November 1521).

Death

Having fallen ill of malaria, Leo X passed away on 1 December 1521, so suddenly that the last sacraments could not be administered; however the modern suspicions of poichild were unstarted. He was buried in Santa Maria sopra Minerva.

Leo was complied with as Pope by Adrian VI.

Behavior as Pope and patron of arts


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When he came to be Pope, Leo X is reported to have actually shelp to his brvarious other Giuliano: "Because God has actually given us the papacy, let us gain it." The Venetian ambassador that associated this of him was not unbiased, nor was he in Rome at the time, nevertheless the expression illustprices reasonably the Pope"s pleasure-loving nature and also the absence of seriousness that defined him. And enjoy he did, traveling around Rome at the head of a lavish parade featuring panthers, jesters, and also Hanno, a white elephant. According to Alexander Dumas

Under his pontificate, Christianity assumed a pagan character, which, passing from art into manners, provides to this epoch a stselection complexion. Crimes for the minute disappeared, to offer place to vices; yet to charming vices, vices in great taste, such as those indulged in by Alcibiades and sung by Catullus.<2>

Leo X was additionally lavish in charity: retirement houses, hospitals, convents, discharged soldiers, pilgrims, poor students, exiles, cripples, the sick, and the unfortunate of eincredibly description were generously remembered, and also even more than 6,000 ducats were each year distributed in alms.

His extravagance offended not only civilization like Martin Luther, but likewise some cardinals, that, led by Alfonso Petrucci of Siena, plotted an assassicountry attempt. At some point, Pope Leo discovered out who these world were, and also had actually them complied with. The conspirators died of "food poisoning." Some human being argue that Leo X and his followers sindicate concocted the assassicountry charges in a moneymaking system to collect fines from the assorted rich cardinals Leo X detested.

While yet a cardinal, he restored the church of Santa Maria in Domnica after Raphael"s designs; and as pope he had actually San Giovanni dei Fiorentini, on the Via Giulia, built, after deindications by Jacopo Sansovino and pressed forward the work on St Peter"s and also the Vatideserve to under Raphael and Agostino Chigi.

His constitution of November 5, 1513, recreated the Roman university, which had actually been neglected by Julius II. He brought back all its faculties, provided larger salaries to the professors, and also summoned distinguiburned teachers from afar; and also, although it never before attained to the prominence of Padua or Bologna, it neverthemuch less possessed in 1514 a faculty (with a good reputation) of eighty-eight professors. Leo dubbed Theodore Lascaris to Rome to give instruction in Greek, and also establimelted a Greek printing-push from which the initially Greek book published at Rome appeared in 1515. He made Raphael custodian of the timeless antiquities of Rome and the vicinity. The distinguimelted Latinists Pietro Bembo and also Jacopo Sadoleto were papal secretaries, and also the well known poet Bernarexecute Accolti. Other poets such as Marco Girolamo Vida, Gian Giorgio Trissino, and also Bibbiena, writers of novelle favor Matteo Bandello, and a hundred various other literati of the moment were bishops, or papal scriptors or abbreviators, or in various other papal employ.

Leo"s lively interest in art and literature, to say nothing of his organic liberality, his alleged nepotism, his political ambitions and also necessities, and his immodeprice personal high-end, exhausted within 2 years the tough savings of Julius II, and precipitated a financial crisis from which he never emerged and also which was a straight reason of the majority of of what, from a papal point of watch, were tragedies of his pontificate. He created many type of brand-new workplaces and also offered them, a move checked out by later Catholics as being "shamemuch less." He marketed cardinals" hats. He sold membership in the "Knights of Peter." He borrowed huge sums from bankers, curials, princes and also Jews. The Venetian ambassador Gradenigo estimated the paying number of offices on Leo"s fatality at 2,150, through a funding value of almost 3,000,000 ducats and a yearly revenue of 328,000 ducats. Marino Giorgi reckoned the plain income of the pope for the year 1517 at around 580,000 ducats, of which 420,000 came from the States of the Church, 100,000 from annates, and also 60,000 from the composition taxes instituted by Sixtus IV. These sums, along with the significant amounts accruing from indulgences, jubilees, and also unique fees, vaniburned as quickly as they were got. Then the pope resorted to pawning palace furniture, table plate, jewels, also statues of the apostles. Several banking firms and many kind of individual creditors were damaged by the death of the pope. His self-indulgence expressed itself in Raphael"s initially commission under Leo, which wregarding "immortalize the actions of Leo"s namesakes in history: Leo I who had stopped Attila, Leo III who had actually crowned Charlemagne, Leo IV who had actually built the Leonine City—each was offered the features of Giovanni de" Medici."<3>

Legacy

Several minor events of Leo"s pontificate are worthy of point out. He was particularly friendly via King Manuel I of Portugal on account of the latter"s missionary enterprises in Asia and also Africa. His concordat via Florence (1516) guaranteed the complimentary election of the clergy in that city. His constitution of 1 March 1519 condemned the king of Spain"s case to refusage the publication of papal bulls. He kept close connections with Poland bereason of the Turkish advance and also the Polish contest with the Teutonic Knights. His bull of July 1, 1519, which regulated the self-control of the Polish Church, was later on transcreated right into a concordat by Clement VII. Leo verified distinct favours to the Jews and permitted them to erect a Hebrew printing-press at Rome. He apshowed the formation of the Oratory of Divine Love, a group of pious males at Rome which later ended up being the Theatine Order, and also he canonized Francis of Paola. He will certainly, yet, mostly be remembered for his extravagant expenditure and also for his clash with Martin Luther, which effectively led to the Protestant Redevelopment.

See also

Notes


References

Pastor, Ludwig von. History of the Popes from the Close of the Center Ages; Drawn from the Secret Archives of the Vatideserve to and various other Original Sources. St. Louis: B.Herder, 1898.

External links

All links retrieved June 25, 2018.

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Julius I Liberius Damasus I Siricius Anastasius I Innocent I Zosimus Boniconfront I Celestine I Sixtus IIILeo I Hilarius Simplicius Felix III Gelasius I Anastasius II Symmachus Hormisdas John I Felix IV Boniconfront II John II Agapetus I Silverius Vigilius Pelagius IJohn III Benedict I Pelagius II Gregory I Sabinian Boniconfront III Bonichallenge IV Adeodatus I


Bonichallenge V Honorius I Severinus John IV Theodore I Martin I Eugene IVitalian Adeodatus II Donus Agatho Leo II Benedict II John V Conon Sergius I John VI John VII Sisinnius Constantine Gregory II Gregory IIIZachary Stephen II Paul I Stephen III Adrian I Leo III Stephen IV Paschal I Eugene II Valentine Gregory IV Sergius II


Leo IV Benedict III Nicholas I Adrian II John VIII Marinus I Adrian III Stephen V Formosus Boniconfront VI Stephen VI Romanus Theodore II John IX Benedict IV Leo V Sergius III Anastasius III Lanexecute John X Leo VI Stephen VII John XI Leo VII Stephen VIII Marinus II Agapetus II John XII Leo VIII Benedict V John XIII Benedict VI Benedict VII John XIV


John XV Gregory V Sylvester II John XVII John XVIII Sergius IV Benedict VIII John XIX Benedict IX Sylvester III Benedict IX Gregory VI Clement II Benedict IX Damasus II Leo IX Victor II Stephen IX Nicholas II Alexander II Gregory VII Victor III Urban II Paschal II Gelasius II Callixtus II Honorius II Innocent II Celestine II Lucius II Eugene III Anastasius IV Adrian IV Alexander III


Lucius III Urban III Gregory VIII Clement III Celestine III Innocent III Honorius III Gregory IX Celestine IV Innocent IV Alexander IV Urban IV Clement IV Gregory X Innocent V Adrian V John XXI Nicholas III Martin IV Honorius IV Nicholas IV Celestine V Boniface VIII Benedict XI Clement V John XXII Benedict XII Clement VI Innocent VI Urban V Gregory XI Urban VI Boniconfront IX Innocent VII


Gregory XII Martin V Eugene IV Nicholas V Callixtus III Pius II Paul II Sixtus IV Innocent VIII Alexander VI Pius III Julius II Leo X Adrian VI Clement VII Paul III Julius III Marcellus II Paul IV Pius IV Pius V Gregory XIII Sixtus V Urban VII Gregory XIV Innocent IX Clement VIII Leo XI Paul V Gregory XV Urban VIII Innocent X Alexander VII Clement IX


Clement X Innocent XI Alexander VIII Innocent XII Clement XI Innocent XIII Benedict XIII Clement XII Benedict XIV Clement XIII Clement XIV Pius VI Pius VII Leo XII Pius VIII Gregory XVI Pius IX Leo XIII Pius X Benedict XV Pius XI Pius XII John XXIII Paul VI John Paul I John Paul IIBenedict XVI


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