iii.Appendix C: Further study from the 13th edition of “Organizational Behavior” 23

Executive Outline

This report offers an examicountry, analysis, and tip to certain difficulties and plausible reremedies to the concerns that developed between Melissa Richardkid and also her sales team at ColorTech Greenhouses Inc. in the instance, Farming Managers: Moving from Team Members to Team Leaders. The primary study pulls information from the case Farming Managers, in enhancement to devices and ideas from the 13th ed. of Organizational Behavior, to help in justifying the proclaimed interpretations enclosed. Other exterior resources were sneed to research the concerns and suggest the resolutions in a deeper manner. Described in this report is a brief summary of the case stating its facts followed by full case analysis poignant on the significant problems, evaluation of significant problems, activity options, evaluation of action options, references, and also implementation problems. The major areas of weakness being personality worries, absence of managerial abilities, and also a misguided team. The references disputed include: even more training, inspiration methods, and also reinforcement approaches.

Case Overview

The instance, Growing Managers: Moving from Team Member to Team Leader, by Brenda Ellington-Booth and also Karen L. Cates exposed three significant flaws: Clash of Team and also Personnel Personalities, Uncomprehensive Training and Managerial Skills, and Misguided Greenresidence and Sales Operations. Melissa Richardboy was a dedicated and also abundant salesperson for ColorTech Greendwellings, Inc., a fresh freduced distributor, in their Chicago location. Her regional sales manager known her high quality of salesmanship and advocated her to the southwest sales manager position in the Phoenix, AZ. Richardkid was initially excited to endure brand-new avenues in her career and welcomed the promotion. Following a brief managerial training, Richardkid discovered the legal concerns of humale sources tricky to comprehend. However, she read leadership publications and felt confident in her capability to motivate a team. The Phoenix office has a strong Spanish society, so Richardkid tried to enhance her Spanish speaking skills on the ride down by listening to audio tapes.

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Prior to Richardson’s first day, she stupassed away her team’s individual performances. She planned to offer an development to her new employees and also gain to know each of them on a personal level. However on her first day, her first impression didn’t go as planned. Beth Campbell was scheduled to be at the Phoenix office to introduce her, but canceled last minute. It was as much as Richardboy to break the ice. The advent was a faientice. She additionally discovered the operation department was a chaotic mess. Once Richardchild freed herself from her terrible development, she began to occupational on her paperwork-related, which appeared never-ending. She eventually uncovered her training had actually not effectively prepared her for this position.

Finally, Richardson was able to meet one-on-one via her employees. Alex Hoffman had actually a bad attitude and also was not willing to pursue tiny markets. Although he has actually the highest possible sales in the group, Hoffguy declines the opportunity to mentor his co-employees. Gregorio Torres has actually low sales and also is not motivated to enhance, but had actually innovative concepts around marketing flowers from a website he volunteered to build. Nick Ruiz is a urged store merchandiser who taught himself a lot around the operations of the agency and the product line. Ruiz, however, the majority of eager to advancement, his experience has been through the company the least. Chelsea Peterboy is a keep merchandiser, favor Ruiz, yet through a really volatile personality, she was constantly on the protective. Sarah Vega had actually bad communication skills, missed work-related on a regular basis, and had sparse sales. The employees did not respect Richardkid. They often occupied themselves on their phones and also muttered words in Spanish against Richardson’s wishes. Richardson’s problems didn’t sheight with the staff. Soon sufficient, paperoccupational plagued her and her relationship via the regional manager diminiburned. Campbell was not valuable in Richardchild shift and never complimented her on the enhancements she carried into the agency. She seldom dubbed to check in via Richardson unless it was to scold her.

It felt like it couldn’t acquire any kind of worst till, a fungus flourished in the brand-new Columbia warehouse and also killed their distribution of plants. This put them at risk to shed new customers they had actually acquired. Not as well lengthy after that, a Home Depot rep deserve to by for a visit. He well-known Richardson’s team had actually potted their plants in the wrong pots. This was a result of negative communication between the sales team and also operations department. Richardchild had actually to assemble her crew on a Saturday, which was the norm at the Chicearlier branch, to repot the whole Home Depot order. Richardchild believed this would certainly be a good chance to develop team cohesiveness and also interindividual relationships, but that was not the situation. Ruiz and Torres arrived at an early stage and ready to job-related Vega was late, as usual, and also Hoffmale and Peterboy never proved. A few weeks later on Peterson submitted a feeble resume for a sales place which received no recognition. This lead Peterson to hired an attorney to discuss ColorTech’s gender diversity plan. Campbell was not happy.

Sales took a dive as a result of the Columbia warehome fungus and Richardson’s paperwork along with the staff’s was piling up. Role overfill had collection in and she was stressed out. She felt as if she had actually to babysit her team and also had actually trouble being an effective team leader. Campbell’s monthly visits were focused on sales and she seldom gave applicable advice. After only a few months, Richardkid was contemplating whether or not her old boss in Chicback would certainly take her back again

Major Issues

The situation Farming Managers: Moving from Team Member to Team Leader was filled with multiple worries and also inconsistencies. These difficulties would selection from managerial problems in between better and also reduced levels to sales and performance irregularities. The leading difficulty being every perboy presented in the instance research caused troubles in his or her own manner. It was as if one was stuck between a rock and also a hard location at eextremely revolve of occasions.

After a team evaluation of all the worries, 3 categories stood out. First category was entitled Clash of Team and also Personnel Personalities. This category encompasses the concerns that comprise the volatile ‘DNA’ of the team itself and the personnel characters which reasons the instability. The second category is Unin-depth Training and Managerial Skills. UTMS covers the topics of role confusion and absence of managerial training. The last category, that represented essential major worries in the Cultivation Managers case, was Misguided Greenhouse and Sales Operations. Both the greenhouse and the sales floor were swamped via inconsistences in the sales team lack of understanding of greenhouse operations, language barriers, and an missing administration procedure.

It was a ticking time bomb before the whole operation imploded because of the stress of the interior problems and outside tragedies. Although at the heart of the company, this “team” did not begin to touch the requirements which were formerly achieved by the founders’ initially greenhouse and operations. Tbelow would certainly be no hope unmuch less drastic actions are taken to reget the catalyst, the ability, and the desire to be the finest well-known premium yearly, perennial, fresh cut, and lengthy stem flower supplier was instilled when again.

Analysis of Major Issues

In the freduced sector, ColorTech Greenhouses Inc. not only thrived annuals, perennials, and also hybrid flowers; it chose to expand its diversity to fresh reduced flowers, long-stemmed roses, and personnel. Although, in terms of personnel, one specific ‘team’ of individuals were not cutting it. The freshly budding team in Phoenix’s boundary was plagued through three categories of issues: Clash of Team and also Personnel Personalities, Uncomprehensive Training and Managerial Skills, and Misguided Greenhouse and also Sales Operations.

Under the category of Clash of Team and Personnel (referred to as “CTPP”), the problems are subcategorized as team concerns and personnel problems. The team’s problems pertained to light once Melissa came right into an empty office on a Friday afternoon at four o’clock. This collection the main look into the low performance norm of the team members. The performance norm was displayed to be weak and also low through little issue displayed for the amount of work needed to be completed and also little worry for various other members of the team. The team’s negative ramifications affected the procedures and efficiency by: not having business and individual pride; not having assistance and helpfulness for teammates or the team; and not making innovation and also adjust to old ways (Uhl-Bein, 2013, pp. 171-172). The cooperation troubles were affected by just how heterogeneous the team members are from one an additional. This developed obstacles for the team as a result of background suffer differences, solved complacent talents, and hindered performance potential (Uhl-Bein, 2013, p. 157). The disillusion of anticipated teamwork and positive occupational performance segued to negative inter-team dynamics which shattered and unfocused the promising work energies of all team members. The main animosities were aimed at the brand-new manager, Melissa Richardchild, from 3 primary members of the staff (Uhl-Bein, 2013, p. 175). These unconstructive behaviors fed right into the team’s non-existent cohesiveness and minimal communication netfunctions. Both of these issues inflamed the currently sensitive issues of manager to staff and also staff to manager problems (Uhl-Bein, 2013, pp. 174, 178).

The personnel worries of the CTPP category details the individual problems of each team member on the distinctions linked through deep-level diversity of their individualities, worths, and also attitudes (Uhl-Bein, 2013, p. 28). The characters of each team member are defined by the Big Five Model of personality traits noted in Figure 1 (Uhl-Bein, 2013, pp. 34-35).

Figure 1: Big Five Personality Dimensions of Team Members

Team Members

Big Five Personality Traits

Team Members

Big Five Personality Traits

Melissa Richardson

Open to Experience

Lacks Emotional Stability

Conscientious

Gregorio Torres

Narrow-Minded

Agreeable

Introverted

Alex Hoffman

Disagreeable Personality

Narrow-Minded

Closed to Experience

Nick Ruiz

Extroverted

Conscientious

Open to Experience

Sarah Vega

Lacks Emotional Stability

Lacks Conscientiousness

Introverted

Chelsea Peterson

Introverted

Closed to Experience

Lacks Emotional Stability

** (Uhl-Bein, 2013, pp. 34-35)

Most of the Big Five Personality Dimensions caused disruptive behaviors that hequipped the group’s progression and also potential. Many type of of the dyspractical activities had, “…being overly aggressive towards other members, reflecting incivility and also disrespect, withillustration and refusing to cooperate” and “... trying to compete for attention and also recognition” (Uhl-Bein, 2013, pp. 169 - 170). For example, Chelsea Peterson was overly aggressive and also hostile via her new boss, Melissa Richardkid in the very first meeting to discuss task satisfactivity and open up the floor for interaction. Alex Hoffmale openly disrespected his boss in the incredibly initially team meeting by rudely showing up late, texting on his mobile phone, and also noisily took his chair via no apology. While, Nick Ruiz preserved competing for Melissa’s attention to watch his want to be a brand-new account manager without acknowledgement of his brand-new boss’s workfill and the groups negative habits.

The second category of worries that plagued the team is Undetailed Training and Managerial Skills (referred to as “UTMS”). UTMS highlights the problems via sales team complications and also managerial disselection. Both the sales team complications and also the managerial disrange were triggered by unpreferable duty dynamics. Role ambiguity developed within Melissa Richardkid as soon as she took the duty of the southwest local sales manager. She was unparticular of her task demands, the form of workfill, and exactly how to manage/motivate a team. Melissa likewise suffered from duty overfill. She felt trapped in the mountains of paperoccupational, unproficient to take care of her staff, and also unqualified to handle the chaos affecting her company. Both Gregorio Torres and also Nick Ruiz fell into the category of function underload. Torres innovative principles were not pursued which resulted in dissatisfactivity. Ruiz felt he was even more than qualified to take on the place as an account manager, however his undeterred pestering caused added anxiety to both parties. Alex Hoffman, Sarah Vega, and Chelsea Peterchild endured from duty conflict. All 3 individuals would certainly not comply through the requirements of the company; therefore, lessened the satisfaction in the entire team’s performance and also instigated program troubles (Uhl-Bein, 2013, p. 168) (Farming Managers: Moving from Team Member to Team Leader, 2012).

The managerial disvariety linked with UTMS started with missing impression management. Melissa attempted to make a solid impression as the new manager to the team, however this trail fell flat due to disrespectful employees and interruptions (Uhl-Bein, 2013, pp. 56-57). Overtime her voice was shed. She kept continuing to be silent instead of requesting help or making decisions. She also perceived hazard of losing her position because of her unqualified status as a manager and her credibility would certainly just be damaged by her neighborhood sales manager, Beth Campbell (Uhl-Bein, 2013, p. 245). Melissa Richardson’s naivety to her needed qualifications hindered the important managerial skills of technical, human and conceptual. The problems Melissa challenged through technical skill were the compelled usage of specialized reporting and record evaluation. Her huguy abilities were tested on countless levels. Her “spirit of trust, enthusiasm, and real involvement” (Uhl-Bein, 2013, p. 16) through her brand-new staff was a preestablished spark of an concept that faded upon fact. She was not able to understand also her employees on an individual or experienced level, for example: efficiently attend to arguments or conflicts; interact through a lot of, if not all, her staff; or understand the feelings of her team. These actions impeded her very own emotional intelligence by hindering her very own self-awareness, impetus and social skills (Uhl-Bein, 2013, pp. 16-17). Her lack of conceptual abilities showed in the start of her training as a manager with the statement, “unless her troubles were precisely the same” (Growing Managers: Moving from Team Member to Team Leader, 2012, p. 3) the stories shared by other supervisors would be of no use to her. Her inability to check out how their stories were interconnected through her own expense her not to translate their services as appropriate indevelopment and potential problem-addressing decisions. By in large, Melissa’s major problems were her lack in reliable managerial skills and also her incapability to be trained as a manager.

The 3rd and also final category is Misguided Greenresidence and Sales Operations (referred to as “MGSO”). This category’s major problems were those of language barriers and absence of a management procedure that developed through both the sales pressure and greenhouse representatives. “More than 20% of respondents felt that language barriers made it difficult for supervisors to get the important respect from their workers” (2011) ,in a study performed by Forbes INSIGHTS and also Rosetta Stone Company, to understand also the effects of multisocial organizations and also language obstacles in business. This statistic helps to explain Melissa’s feelings of exclusion at the Phoenix location because of the usage of both Spanish and English and her fluency in only English (Farming Managers: Moving from Team Member to Team Leader, 2012). The Phoenix team’s last significant concern was that of no administration process. All stages of the procedure never before started. Within this examine five various roles of Mintzberg’s duties of effective managers had actually potential, yet were never before realized, those were: being a leader, being a monitor, being a disseminator, being a disturbance handler and also negotiator. All of which take a proenergetic method to company, wbelow Melissa, her sales force, and also the greenhouses took reenergetic viewpoints to the difficulties challenged (Uhl-Bein, 2013, pp. 15-16).

To close, the instance Growing Managers: Moving from Team Member to Team Leader was filled through multiple problems and also inconsistencies. The 3 categories of issues that plagued the team were: Clash of Team and Personnel Personalities, Unthorough Training and also Managerial Skills, and also Misguided Greenresidence and Sales Operations. This analysis has actually delved into the integral reasons why the southwest regional sales team of ColorTech faicaused end up being a successful that would break right into the peak sales ranks as Melissa had actually hoped.

Action Alternatives

In the case Cultivation Managers, 3 distinguished worry categories were prevalent: Clash of Team and also Personnel Personalities, Unthorough Training and Managerial Skills, and also Misguided Greenresidence and Sales Operations. Due to these concerns, activity choices were devised to fit the requirements of Melissa, her team and also the firm.

Under the category of Clash of Team and Personnel Personalities (“CTPP”), tbelow was lack of team chemistry and cohesiveness. An alternative to deal with this problem is to implement team-structure activities. Melissa need to host mandatory team-structure meetings eextremely Friday afternoon. A second different to squash CTPP is for Melissa to hold one-on-one meetings. This way disruptive habits might be more conveniently managed and treated to a favorable outcome.

Relative to Unthorough Training and also Managerial Skills (“UTMS”), one plausible activity alternative is for Melissa to shadow another manager. While struggling to finish reports, make decisions, or regulate her employees, tbelow was no one to provide feedback or carry out any type of guidance. Beth Campbell was little bit use in regards to support or guidance. A mentor for Melissa is a important relocate for her managerial skills to boost and also become more acclimated to the place. Furthermore, continuing education is a bare minimum in one’s profession is crucial. Sales training for the team is another solution to the dilemma. It deserve to be argued that particular team members such as Hoffmale and also Vega were unurged. To increase the team’s inspiration, reinforcements are a feasible strategy: positive reinforcement for meeting sales purposes and negative reinforcement or punishment, such as docking pay, for undesired performance and/or behavior. These are all potential alternatives to solving the UTMS obstacles.

Resolving the Misguided Greenhouse and Sales Operations (“MGSO”) is important. Creating a central communication network-related creates cohesive communication throughout the company that help in counting the language obstacle. A second alternate is requiring the team to undergo training on the green residence operations to familiarize themselves through particulars about the green residence.

The activity options presented were split by 3 categories: Clash of Team and Personnel Personalities, Uncomprehensive Training and also Managerial Skills, and Misguided Greenhome and also Sales Operations. Team-structure activities, training, reinforcements, and also a centralized interaction network-related are just a couple of devices available. By tackling the significant issues in these areas, Melissa, her team and the firm have actually a chance to deal with the issues at hand.

Analysis of Alternatives

Growing Managers melted light on the concerns challenged by Melissa and also her team. Action choices were proposed to reconcile Clash of Team and also Personnel Personalities, Undetailed Training and Managerial Skills, and also Misguided Greenhouse and Sales Operations for the higher excellent. Each alternative merits positive and also negative facets.

The benefits connected via implementing team-building activities are “an effective method to unite a group, develop strengths, and also attend to weaknesses” (Mind Tools, 2014) which are main worries of CTPP. An example would be “Survival Scenario… forces your group to connect and agree to ensure their ‘survival’” (Mind Tools, 2014). A negative element to teamstructure tasks is the constant time essential for the team to be successful. The outcome of a team who repeatedly engages in teaming activities will certainly be enhanced cohesiveness and also team effectiveness (Mind Tools, 2014). Holding one-on-one meetings to deal with disruptive habits was the various other choice. Advantperiods incorporate face-to-challenge time that will certainly construct a deeper relationship via each of her subordinates and also acquire to know them on a personal level. A price element would be the team might not open up up as easily to Melissa, creating a roadblock such as “refmaking use of to cooperate” (Uhl-Bein, 2013, p. 169). The all at once result is offered time, Melissa deserve to break ground on getting to recognize her team on a personal level that will certainly eat ameans at the personality clashes.

Under the major problem, UTMS, a proposed solution to Melissa’s absence of managerial skills is to shadow a manager that is on website. The benefits are that Melissa will gain even more suffer and have a far better grasp of forced task work and what her function will certainly be. Role ambiguity will eventually diminish. A pitloss would be Melissa ending up being dependent on a mentor’s existence and not occurring her own non-programmed decision making skills. The outcome is favorable as a result of her capacity to learn her function and also build her managerial abilities. Sales training for her team is likewise beneficial so the team’s performance does not reprimary stagnant. Disadvantages of this are that the outcomes might take a few months to see a noticeable advancement. Regarding the team’s incentive, implementing positive reinforcements, negative reinforcements, and also punishment will produce expectations for the team and increase the team’s self-control and also eagerness to job-related more properly.

The significant worry MGSO imposes will certainly be resolved by developing a central communication network (Uhl-Bein, 2013, p. 177). The advantage for implementing this strategy is groups are coordinated, regimen, and also successful. One option would certainly be utilizing only one primary language and creating an extra reliable operation. This might call for stern activity being taken for hapdanger mistakes going forward to enpressure this protocol. The in its entirety outcome is bappropriate and also will certainly smoothen out the green real estate operations.

In conclusion, these activity alternatives are measures taken settle the significant problems challenge by Melissa, her team, and also ColorTech Greenhomes Inc. Each different possesses benefits and also prices but would certainly yield a sound resolution to the major concerns addressed. The best options to correcting the worries confronted by Melissa and her team are discovered in the references.

Recommendations

Adapting to her managerial function, Richardkid came to be overwhelmed with the responsibilities of a manager and also endured though function overfill. Three significant setbacks were: Clash of Team and Personnel Personalities, Unin-depth Training and also Managerial Skills, and also Misguided Greenhouse and also Sales Operations. To become an effective manager, it is imperative Richardson continues her managerial education and learning and also she must be permitted to shadow a neighboring location’s manager or have one visit her at the Phoenix office. It is essential that she feels confident in her decisions and is knowledgeable of just how points run. Richard’s team cohesiveness is crucial. A team that is encouraged and also enjoys being a component of the team will be successful. To guide the staff to work-related as a team, Richardson should usage positive and negative reinforcement approaches. She have to reward her employees for a task well done and discover ways to encourage them once they sabsence off. The regulation of impact says that “behavior followed by pleasant aftermath is most likely to be repeated, and also habits adhered to by unpleasant after-effects is not” (Uhl-Bein, 2013, p. 65). The language obstacle is a issue between the greenhome procedure staff and the sales team. A centralized communication network should be established. Richardkid need to create a central hub where she, at the helm, distributes jobs and also collects feedearlier from the staff. This will certainly have everyone working separately and keep everyone coordinated. Language have to not be an worry. If effective, Richardkid will certainly experience the most satisfaction (Uhl-Bein, 2013, p. 177). If these three concepts are executed properly, confidence in Richardson’s leadership and also decision making skills will boost, interpersonal connection will certainly progression among the organization, and also less operational blunders will certainly happen.

Implementation of Issues

ColorTech needs to accommodate three primary factors: Clash of Team and Personnel Personalities, Undetailed Training and also Managerial Skills, and also Misguided Greenresidence and also Sales Operations. If ColorTech takes no activity in improving their managerial training approaches, the competition is certain to surpass their potential to be the height freduced supplier in the country. Her staff has actually significant worries once it comes to relationships. Richardson need to apply positive and negative reinforcement approaches to adequately motivate each employee by identifying their individual weaknesses and also toughness. Operations were best explained as an “energized riot” (Growing Managers: Moving from Team Member to Team Leader, 2012, p. 2) A centralized communication netoccupational is an excellent way to lessened confusion and also come to be reliable.

ColorTech has actually an extremely crucial decision to make when it comes to monitoring training programs for their employees. After observing Richardson’s grueling initially few months, they obviously absence the expertise in training an efficient manager. Richardson is in need of framework in her day-to-day regimen. To and efficient their daily routine, it is recommended she visit another bordering ColorTech area and also shadow their manager. This would not renovate their office setting immediately, yet need to have a permanent benefit. Other supervisors might not have actually the moment in their schedules to train Richardkid and also an external source might be a far better choice for time. However before, an outside trainer this would certainly be at a expense. We understand that no 2 business cultures are the same, however they may be so totally different at other areas making use of the same strategies may not job-related at the Phoenix office (Uhl-Bein, 2013, p. 328).

The sales team and also staff at the Phoenix office require catalyst and team cohesiveness. It was recommended Richardboy implement positive and also negative reinforcement techniques to insist on improving these 2 issues. If she praises her employees for every little bit thing they carry out, it may begin to come to be meant and the acknowledgment will certainly ultimately end up being unattrenergetic. Also, employees may focus on getting a reward fairly than proceeding to learn innovative practices in their field. Negative reinforcement could cause a dispute on the manager to staff partnership. The right punishment for each offense is tough to identify. Too much negative reinforcement can reduce the self-esteem of the staff and also rise turnover. (Uhl-Bein, 2013, pp. 64-68)

A central interaction network was recommfinished to reduce the anxiety operations had actually through communicating through the sales team and also vice versa (Uhl-Bein, 2013, p. 177). It is Richardson’s responsibility to make this netjob-related successful. Richardson will certainly be at the helm of the communication netoccupational. If she is not up to the task, the network-related will certainly fail. Also her Spanish speaking skills are subpar, yet this can be remepassed away by just permitting one primary language, English, to be spoken at the hub.

It is hoped these referrals settle ColorTech, Inc.’s issues of: Clash of Team and Personnel Personalities, Uncomprehensive Training and Managerial Skills, and also Misguided Greenhouse and also Sales Operations. As lengthy as they continue to be amethod from these implementation problems there are destined for success. ColorTech will certainly have the advantage to come to be the leading flower provider and also greenresidence in the industry.

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Reference List

Forbes INSIGHTS. (2011, July). Reducing the Impact of Language Barriers. Reducing the Impact of Language Barriers. New York, New York, United States of America. Retrieved from http://sources.rosettarock.com/CDN/us/pdfs/Biz-Public-Sec/Forbes-Insights-Reducing-the-Impact-of-Language-Barriers.pdf

Growing Managers: Moving from Team Member to Team Leader, KEL629 (Kellogg School of Management 2012). Retrieved February 10, 2014

Mind Tools. (2014). Team-Building Experiences. Retrieved from Mind Tools: http://www.mindtools.com/pages/article/newTMM_52.htm

Uhl-Bein, M. (2013). Organizational Behavior, 13th Edition (13th ed.). (J. R. Schermerhorn, Jr., & R. N. Osborn, Eds.) VitalPublication file: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Appendix A: Case KEL629

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Appendix B: Reducing the Impact of Language Barriers

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Appendix C: More research study from the 13th edition of “Organizational Behavior”

Centralized interaction networks link team members via a main allude. (pg. 177)

Disruptive behaviors in teams injury the group process and also limit team effectiveness (pg. 169)

Role ambiguity occurs once someone is unspecific around what is intended of him or her (pg. 168)

Non-programmed decisions are developed to resolve a distinct trouble or opportunity at hand (pg. 194)

Positive reinforcement strengthens a habits by making a preferable consequence contingent on its occurrence (pg. 65)

Negative reinforcement strengthens a actions by making the avoidance of an undesirable consequence contingence on its incident (pg. 68)

Punishment discoureras a actions by making an unpleasant consequence contingent on its event (pg. 68)