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transition-state theory, also dubbed activated-complicated theory or theory of absolute reactivity rates, treatment of chemical reactions and other processes that regards them as proceeding by a constant readjust in the family member positions and potential energies of the constituent atoms and also molecules. On the reactivity path in between the initial and also last arrangements of atoms or molecules, tright here exists an intermediate configuration at which the potential power has actually a maximum value. The configuration matching to this maximum is well-known as the set off complicated, and also its state is described as the transition state. The distinction in between the energies of the shift and also the initial claims is closely regarded the experimental activation power for the reaction; it represents the minimum energy that a reacting or flowing device must acquire for the transformation to take location. In transition-state concept, the caused complicated is taken into consideration to have actually been created in a state of equilibrium through the atoms or molecules in the initial state, and therefore its statistical and also thermodynamic properties deserve to be specified. The rate at which the final state is attained is established by the variety of set off complexes developed and also the frequency with which they go over to the final state. These amounts may be calculated for easy units by making use of statistical-mechanical principles. In this way the price continuous of a chemical or physical process may be expressed in terms of atomic and also molecular dimensions, atomic masses, and interatomic or intermolecular forces. Transition-state concept have the right to additionally be formulated in thermodynamic terms. (See chemical kinetics.)