addendA number added to one or more numbers to create a sum.
enhancement residential property of 0The amount of any number and 0 is equal to that number. The number 0 is frequently referred to as the additive identification.

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amountIn a percent difficulty, the portion of the entirety equivalent to the percent.
associative law of additionFor three or more numbers, the sum is the same regardless of exactly how you team the numbers. For example, (6 + 2) + 1 = 6 + (2 + 1).
associative law of multiplication

For three or even more numbers, the product is the very same regardmuch less of exactly how you group the numbers. For example, 3 • (5 • 7) = 3 • (5 • 7).

In a percent trouble, the base represents how a lot should be thought about 100% (the whole); in exponents, the base is the worth that is elevated to a power as soon as a number is created in exponential notation. In the example of 53, 5 is the base.

capacityThe amount of liquid (or various other pourable substance) that an item can organize once it"s complete.

A measure of temperature commonly provided in nations that use the metric system. On the Celsius range, water freezes at 0° C and also boils at 100° C.

common denominatorA number that is a multiple of every one of the denominators in a team of fractions.
commutative law of additionTwo numbers have the right to be added in any kind of order without transforming the amount. For example, 6 + 4 = 4 + 6.
commutative legislation of multiplication

Two numbers have the right to be multiplied in any order without altering the product. For example, 8 • 9 = 9 • 8.

Raising a number to a power of 3. 23 is review “2 to the 3rd power” or “2 cubed,” and also implies usage 2 as a element three times in the multiplication. 23 = 2 • 2 • 2 = 8.

cupA unit of capacity equal to 8 fluid ounces.
decimal fractionsA fraction composed as a decimal suggest and digits to the best of the decimal point
decimal numberDecimal numbers are numbers whose place worth is based on 10s, consisting of whole numbers and decimal fractions, which have actually decimal points and also digits to the ideal of the decimal allude. The numbers 18, 4.12 and also 0.008 are all decimal numbers.
denominatorThe bottom variety of a fraction that tells how many kind of equal components are in the entirety.
differenceThe amount that results from subtracting one number from another, or from subtracting the subtrahfinish from the minufinish.
digitOne of the signs 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, or 9.
distributeTo rewrite the product of the number and a amount or difference utilizing the distributive residential property.
distributive home of multiplication over additionThe product of a number and also a sum is the very same as the amount of the product of the number and each of the addends comprising the amount. For example, 3(4 + 2) = 3(4) + 3(2).
distributive residential or commercial property of multiplication over subtractionThe product of a number and a distinction is the very same as the difference of the product of the number and each of the numbers being subtracted. For instance, 8(10 – 2) = 8(10) – 8(2).
divisibility testA dominance that tells easily whether separating a number by an additional number can be done without leaving a remainder.

Can be separated by a number without leaving a remainder. For example, 20 is divisible by 4 because 20 ÷ 4 = 5 (no remainder).

The number that is being separated into the dividend in a division problem. In the trouble 8 ÷ 2 = 4, 2 is the divisor.

equationA mathematical sentence that shows that 2 expressions are equal.
identical fractionsTwo or even more fractions that name the same component of the totality.
estimateAn answer to a trouble that is close to the precise number, however not necessarily specific.
also numberA totality number that is divisible by 2.
expanded form

A way to compose a number as a sum of the value of its digits. For instance, thirty-two is composed in broadened form as 30 + 2, or 3 10s + 2 ones, or (3 • 10) + (2 • 1).

The number that suggests exactly how many times the base is supplied as a factor. In the instance of 53, 3 is the exponent and suggests that 5 is provided 3 times as a factor: 5 • 5 • 5.

A notation that represents repetitive multiplication using a base and an exponent. For instance, 24 is notation that indicates 2 • 2 • 2 • 2. This notation tells you that 2 is used as a variable 4 times. 24 = 16. (Also referred to as exponential form.)


A mathematical expression. For example, 8 • 2 + 3 is an expression. It represents the amount 19.


A number that is multiplied by one more number or numbers to get a product. For example, in the equation 4 • 5 = 20, 4 and also 5 are components.

aspect label methodOne method of converting a measurement from one unit of measurement to one more unit of measurement. In this approach, you multiply the original measurement by unit fractions containing various systems of measurement to obtain the new unit of measurement.
element pair

A pair of numbers whose product is a given number. For instance, 2 and also 15 are a element pair of 30 because 2 •15 = 30. Both 2 and also 15 are determinants of 30.

factor treeA diagram mirroring just how a number have the right to be created as determinants, and those determinants created as a product of determinants, and so on until only prime numbers are supplied.

A measure of temperature commonly used in the United States. On the Fahrenheit scale, water freezes at 32° F and also boils at 212° F.

A unit of capacity equal to

 of a cup. One fluid ounce of water at 62°F weighs about one ounce.

footA unit for measuring length in the U.S. customary measurement mechanism. 1 foot = 12 inches
fractionAn expression offered to refer to a component of a totality.
gallonA unit equal to 4 quarts, or 128 liquid ounces.
gramThe base unit of mass in the Metric mechanism.
grouping symbolsSymbols such as parentheses, braces, brackets, and fraction bars that indicate the numbers to be grouped together.
imappropriate fractionA fraction in which the numerator is equal to or better than the denominator.
inchA unit for measuring size in the U.S. customary measurement system. 1 foot = 12 inches
inequalityA mathematical sentence that compares two numbers that are not equal.
inverse operationA mathematical procedure that deserve to reverse or “undo” another operation. Addition and subtraction are inverse operations. Multiplication and also division are inverse operations.
leastern widespread denominator(LCD) The leastern, or smallest, number that is a multiple of all the denominators in a group of fractions.
leastern common multiple(LCM) The least, or smallest, number that is a multiple of two or even more numbers.
lengthThe distance from one end to the various other or the distance from one suggest to an additional.
like denominatorsDenominators that are the exact same.
literThe base unit of volume in the Metric mechanism.
lowest termsA fractivity is in lowest terms if the numerator and also denominator have actually no common determinants other than 1.
measurementThe usage of standard devices to discover out the dimension or quantity of items such as size, width, elevation, mass, weight, volume, temperature or time.
meterThe base unit of size in the Metric system.
metric systemA extensively supplied system of measurement that is based on the decimal system and multiples of 10.
mileA unit for measuring size in the U.S. customary measurement system. 1 mile = 5,280 feet or 1,760 yards.
minuendThe number from which an additional number is subtracted.
blended number

An expression in which a entirety number is linked via a proper fractivity. For instance 5


is a combined number.

multipleAny number that has actually a given number as a aspect. For instance, 4, 8, 16, and 200 are multiples of 4, because 4 is a aspect of each of these numbers.
multiplication residential property of 1The product of any kind of number and also 1 is equal to that number. The number 1 is often referred to as the multiplicative identity.
natural numberThe numbers 1, 2, 3, 4 and so on. Also called counting numbers.
numeratorThe optimal number of a portion that tells just how many parts of a totality are being stood for.
operationA mathematical process; the four fundamental operations are addition, subtractivity, multiplication, and department.
order of operationsThe rules that determine the sequence of calculations in an expression through more than one kind of computation.
ounceA unit for measuring weight in the UNITED STATE customary measurement mechanism. 16 ounces = 1 pound.
percentA proportion that compares a number to 100. “Per cent” suggests “per 100,” or “exactly how many kind of out of 100.”
perfect square

A totality number that have the right to be expressed as a whole number raised to a power of 2. For example, 25 is a perfect square bereason 25 = 5 • 5 = 52.

perimeterThe distance around a two-dimensional shape.
periodEach team of three digits in a number separated by a comma.
pintA unit of capacity equal to 16 fluid ounces, or 2 cups.
place valueThe worth of a digit based on its place within a number.
place-value chartA chart that mirrors the value of each digit in a number.
polygonA closed plane figure bounded by three or more line segments.
poundA unit for measuring weight in the U.S. customary measurement system. 16 ounces = 1 pound.
power of 10

Any totality number that have the right to be represented by 10x. The first 4 powers of 10 are 1, 10, 100, and also 1000.

prefixA brief set of letters that denote the dimension of measurement systems in the Metric System. Metric prefixes include centi-, milli-, kilo-, and also hecto-.
prime factorizationA number written as the product of its prime factors.
prime numberA herbal number through exactly 2 factors: 1 and also the number itself.
proper fractionA fraction in which the numerator is much less than the denominator.
proportionAn equation that states that two ratios are equal.
quartA unit of capacity equal to 32 fluid ounces, or 4 cups.

The symbol used for square root and various other roots. It looks favor

 and also the number is created under it. For instance, the square root of nine is written through the radical sign:

When a base has an exponent, it deserve to be sassist that the base is “raised to the power” of the exponent. For instance, 35 is check out as “3 increased to the fifth power.”

rateA proportion that compares quantities measured in different devices. For instance, a rate compares the distance travecaused a length of time.
ratioA comparikid of 2 numbers by division. For example, the proportion of 15 boys in a course to 14 girls in the same class is 15:14.

A number that once multiplied by a provided number gives a product of 1. For instance,

 are reciprocals of each other.

roundingFinding a number that’s cshed to a offered number, however is easier to think around.
simplest formA fraction is in easiest form if the numerator and also denominator have actually no common determinants other than 1.
square root

A value that have the right to be multiplied by itself to provide the original number. For example if the original number is 9, then 3 is its square root bereason 3 multiplied by itself (32, pronounced "3 squared") amounts to 9. The symbol supplied for a square root is dubbed a radical authorize and also goes on optimal of the number. The square root of 9 is created as


Multiplying a number by itself, or elevating the number to a power of 2. 82 have the right to be read as “8 to the second power,” “8 to a power of 2,” or “8 squared.”

typical formA method to write a number utilizing digits. For example, thirty-two is composed in typical develop as 32.
subtrahendThe number that is subtracted from one more number.
sumThe result once two or even more numbers are added; the quantity that outcomes from enhancement.
tonA unit for measuring the weight of heavier items in the UNITED STATE customary measurement device. 1 ton = 2,000 pounds.
trailing zeroA placeholder 0 that occurs after the final non-0 digit in a decimal number. In the number 22.0900, the 0s in the thousandths and also ten-thousandths places are trailing zeros.
U.S. customary measurement systemThe a lot of widespread mechanism of measurement offered in the USA. It is based upon English measurement devices of the 18th century.
unit equivalentsStatements of equivalence between measurement systems within a system or in comparichild to another mechanism of systems. For example 1 foot = 12 inches or 1 inch = 2.54 centimeters are both examples of unit equivalents.
unit fractions

A fraction wbelow the numerator and denominator are equal amounts, as in

. Unit fractions serve to help through conversions in the Factor Label strategy.

unit of measurementA standard amount or quantity. For example, an inch is a unit of measurement.
unit priceA price in which the quantity is expressed as one unit. If 12 candy bars expense $24, the unit price is $2 per 1 candy bar.
unit rateA price in which the second amount is one unit. If a bird flaps its wings 240 times in 3 minutes, the unit rate of wing flapping is 80 flaps per 1 minute.
unprefer denominators

Denominators that are different from each other. For example the fractions

 and also
 have various denominators, one denominator being 4 and also the various other denominator being 8.

weightA mathematical summary of exactly how heavy an item is.

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whole numberAny of the numbers 0, 1, 2, 3, and so on.
yardA unit for measuring size in the UNITED STATE customary measurement device. 1 yard = 3 feet or 36 inches.