"The Sun, with all the planets revolving about it, and relying on it, deserve to still ripen a bunch of grapes as though it had actually nothing else in the Universe to do." ~ Galileo

You are watching: 1. nuclear fusion of hydrogen into helium occurs in the .

Mass: 1.989x1030 kg Radius: 695,000 kilometres (equator) Average Density: 1.410 gm/cm3 Rotation Period: 25 - 36 days Escape Velocity: 618.02 km/sec Luminosity: 3.839 x 1026 watts Magnitude (Vo): -26.8 Surchallenge Temp: 5,780 K (mean) Age: 4.5 billion years

In the core of the Sun hydrogen is being converted into helium. This is referred to as nuclear fusion. It takes four hydrogen atoms to fuse into each helium atom. During the process some of the mass is converted into energy. Mass of 4 H atoms: 4.03130 AMU Mass of 1 He atom: 4.00268 AMU 1 Atomic Mass Unit (AMU) amounts to 1.67x10-27kgs The difference between the mass of 4 H atoms and 1 He atom is 0.02862 AMU which is only 0.71% of the original mass. This small fraction of the mass is converted into energy. If 4 grams (1/8 ounce) of H are converted to He, only 2.8x10-3 grams of the mass is converted to energy: How a lot energy is generated from converting such a tiny amount of mass? We can calculate by making use of Einstein"s well known formula. E = mc2 E = (2.8x10-3 grams) x c2 E = (2.8x10-6 kgs) x (3x108m/sec)2 E = 2.6x1011 joules Enough power to keep a 60-watt light bulb shining for over 100 years! The Sun has actually different layers through different properties, these layers are composed of material that is around 75% hydrogen and 25% helium by mass. Ssuggest put, the Sun is a good ball of gas, hot enough to glow in eincredibly tier. In the exceptionally innermost part of the Sun, called its core, the temperature is around 15 million Kelvins, the density is 150 times that of water, and also the push is over 200 billion times greater than atmospheric push here on Earth. This heavy, sweltering location is wbelow the Sun"s power is created through a process recognized as thermonuclear fusion. While fusion is tough to mimic on Planet, the core of the Sun and other stars is a perfect setting for it. Here, the temperatures are high sufficient for hydrogen nuclei to smash together and form helium nuclei, releasing remarkable amounts of energy in assorted develops. Energy produced in the form of light keeps bouncing approximately inside the Sun, as though the Sun were made totally of mirrors. A pwrite-up of light can take even more than 30,000 years to reach the surconfront and also escape! Energy in the develop of tiny pshort articles dubbed neutrinos, yet, deserve to take a trip directly out of the Sun and right into the Solar System. Neutrino observatories on Earth meacertain the consistent wash of these tiny, fast-moving particles. The noticeable visual magnitude of the Sun is -26.8, making it appear around 10 billion (10,000,000,000) times as bbest as the following brightest star, Sirius. The absolute magnitude of the Sun, the magnitude it would certainly have actually at a distance of 10 parsec or 32.6 light years, is +4.8. Amongst the brightest stars we can view through the naked eye, tright here is just one, alpha Centauri, with a equivalent absolute magnitude to the Sun. Many of the rest are intrinsically far brighter. Light takes about 500 seconds (8 1/3 minutes) to travel from the Sun to the Planet. The average distance to the Planet from the facility of the Sun is around 149,000,000 km, or 93,000,000 miles; a distance well-known as an huge unit (AU). There are over 63,000 AU in 1 light year. 1 AU is about 0.000016 light year. The nearemainder star, alpha Centauri, is 4.3 light years far-off, or around 280,000 AU.

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Activity on the solar surconfront, photo by Brad Snowder.